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星火英语15篇文章背完大学英语六级词汇:Unit12-Part1

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《星火英语15篇背完六级词汇》教你一种用全新的方法突破六级词汇。UNIT12The American DreamThe dream to c

    《星火英语15篇背完六级词汇》教你一种用全新的方法突破六级词汇。

    UNIT12

    The American Dream

    The dream to construct a building

    to house everyone and everything

    connected with world trade

    began in the early 1960's.

    After much deliberation,

    Minoru Yamasaki was commissioned

    over more than a dozen other architects

    to work with the firm of Emery Roth

    and Sons to design this massive edifice.

    His task was evident:

    the building must have

    twelve million square feet of floor space

    on a sixteen acre parcel of land,

    accommodate the new facilities

    for the Hudson tubes and subway connections,

    and be done within the 500 million dollar budget.

    The relatively small site

    combined with the vast space

    needs meant that

    the only way to go was up.

    The development would dwarf its neighbors

    and change the New York landscape

    and skyline at the bottom of Manhattan.

    In order to accommodate

    the nine million square feet of office space,

    Yamasaki made the decision

    that a twotower development would be best.

    This would serve the dual purpose

    of giving sufficient office area

    on each floor and allowing a manageable structural system

    while taking advantage of the superb views.

    The twin towers would be 110 floors each,

    rising to a height of 1,353 feet (412 meters).

    From the observation decks

    at the tops of the towers

    it would be possible to see 45 miles

    in every direction.

    When asked why he designed two 110-storey buildings

    instead of one 220-storey building,

    he replied, flippantly, “

    I didnt want to lose the human touch.”

    The first act in the construction process

    was the excavation.

    The 1.2 million cubic yards of earth

    and rock that were removed

    were used to create 23 acres of fill

    in the Hudson River adjacent to the W.T.C. site.

    This landfill project was subsequently developed

    as Battery Park. The excavation,

    besides providing the foundation

    for this enormous construction,

    would house parking garages,

    subway terminals and tubes,

    and shopping concourses.

    Yamasaki believed that

    all buildings must be strong

    in the context of being dominant.

    He felt that each building should

    “be a monument to the virility of our society”.

    The structural system,

    while possessing this strength,

    is also impressively simple.

    The 208-foot front wall

    is essentially a pre-assembled steel web,

    with columns on 39inch centers, 

    providing the wind bracing necessary

    for a building of this height,

    allowing the central core

    to take only the gravity loads.

    This very light,

    economical configuration would result in

    keeping the wind bracing

    in the most efficient place,

    the outside shell of the building.

    In this way, the wind force

    would not be transferred

    through the floor membrane to the core.

    Thirtythree inch deep floors

    made of prefabricated steel trusses

    would act as supports to stiffen the outside walls

    against the buckling forces

    of the windload pressures.

    There would be no interior columns

    in the office spaces,

    an amazing feat

    as there would be 40 000 square feet

    of office space on each of the upper floors.

    In total, there would be seven buildings

    in the complex;

    the twin towers standing 110 stories high ,

    four smaller towers,

    and a central plaza.

    Also, there would be seven underground levels

    containing services,

    shopping, parking garages and a subway station.

    When completed, there would be

    ten million square feet of leasable space,

    or an acre of rentable space

    on each floor of each tower.

    The elevator system was intended to be fast,

    efficient,and space saving.

    Express elevators opening onto the forty-first

    and seventy-fourth floors

    would serve the sky lobbies.

    From these floors and from the plaza,

    four banks of elevators would

    carry passengers to each of the three zones.

    Tenders posted, contractors hired,

    and the preliminary materials purchased,

    the groundbreaking ceremony

    was held on August 5, 1966.

    Some offices were ready for occupancy

    in 1970 but the ribbon cutting ceremony

    wasn't held until April 4, 1973.

    Final cost 750 million dollars.

    The institution of the W.T.C.

    would become a symbol of commerce

    and economic superiority to the world.

    International businesses recognized

    that it would be advantageous

    to have offices there.

    Thus, the working population of the W.T.C.

    would incorporate a cross-section of nationalities,

    not just Americans.

    The buildings would be occupied

    by as many as

    fifty thousand people daily during the week.

    Additionally,thousands of tourists

    could be in the center at any given time,

    visiting the restaurant,

    Windows on the World,

    atop One W.T.C.,

    the indoor and outdoor observation decks

    on Two W.T.C., as well as the shops,

    exhibition pavilions,

    and the 250 room hotel.

    A complex of this size

    is not without some problems,

    including fire. Numerous small fires

    and one major one on February 13, 1975

    occurred over the years.

    However, on February 26, 1993,

    a terrorist attack on the W.T.C.

    caused the largest incident ever handled

    by the City of New York's Fire Department.

    The blaze, resulting from

    the ignition of a nitrourea bomb,

    with hydrogen cylinders to add impact,

    and located in the parking garage,

    required the response of 84 engine companies,

    60 truck companies,

    and hundreds of personnel.

    Firefighters maintained a presence

    at the site for 28 days,

    guarding against the possibility

    of further fires caused by the blast.

    Six people died and 1042 were injured.

    The towers survived.

    After this violent incident failed

    in its intended purpose of destroying the W.T.C.,

    who could have envisaged an assault

    as disastrous as the one inflicted on it

    and the United States on September 11, 2001?

    Who could have conceived an attack

    so vicious it would eclipse

    almost every manmade catastrophe?

    Who could have foreseen that

    the American dream would

    blur into a terrible nightmare?

    At 8∶45 a.m. New York local time,

    a hijacked 767 commercial airliner

    with a full load of jet fuel

    for a transcontinentalflight collided with One W.T.C.,

    The north tower,

    with enough impetus to carry it

    through to the opposite side.

    Initially, terrorism was not a consideration

    in the mind of the public.

    This was merely a dreadful accident.

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