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大学英语四六级晨读经典365:夏日激情篇 141 John D.Rockefeller 约翰·戴维森·洛克菲勒(mp3)

merryangle87 于2014-08-21发布 l 已有人浏览
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“石油大王”洛克菲勒的创业史在美国早期富豪中颇具代表性:冷静,精明,富有远见,凭借独有的魄力,一步步建立起庞大的商业帝国。
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141 John D.Rockefeller

141 约翰·戴维森·洛克菲勒

Rockefeller. industrialist and philanthropist  was born in Richford. New York, USA. After only two years of high school, he went to work (1855) in Cleveland. as a book-keeper for a small food firm. In 1859 he formed Clark & Rockefeller. a food handling firm that prospered during the Civil War. Deeply religious. he began his philanthropies by giving 10 per cent of his earnings to churches. In 1863 he entered the brand new oil business by settling up a refinery in Cleveland that by 1870 had expanded to the extent that he formed the Standard Oil Co of Ohio. By 1878 his company dominated the piping: refining. and marketing of American petroleum. and soon became a major player in the world markets. His monopolistic tendencies led to a famous federal lawsuit (1890 - 1892). whereupon he dissolved the Standard Oil "trust" and trans-ferred control to companies in different states. He maintained control through Standard Oil (New Jersey) until a 1911 Supreme Court decision forced its dissolution and his retirement. By this time Rockefeller had. since the late 1890s. been increasingly less involved with the business and more engaged in his philanthropic activities. His bene-factions during his lifetime reached some $550 million, and included especially the Baptist Church, the YMCA, The University of Chicago. and the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research(Rockefeller University since 1953). He also established the Rockefeller Foundation(1913). which remained the principal disburser of the estate's fortune in ensuing decades. A legend in his own lifetime, for some he remained the supreme American success story, for others he was the symbol of unrestrained capitalism.

洛克菲勒,不仅是一位实业家,而且还是一位慈善家。他出生在美国纽约的里奇福德镇。1855年,只读了两年高中,他就去克利夫兰参加工作,在一个小食品公司做会计员。1859年,他成立了一家名为克拉克·洛克菲勒的食品加工公訇。内战期间,这家公司迅速发展起来。由于虔诚的宗教信仰,他开始从事慈善事业.并将收入的10%都捐给了教堂。1963年,洛克菲勒进入一个新的石油品牌领域,他在克利夫兰开设了一个炼油厂。1870年,该厂规模扩大,他又在俄亥俄州成立了标准石油公司。到1878年,他的公司已经垄断了输油管道、炼油工业和美国的石油市场,并很快在世界市场上占据十分重要的地位。他的垄断导致了1890至1892年著名的同盟诉讼,于是他不再信任标准石油,并将控制权转移到各个州的公司,但他仍继续控制标准石油公司《新泽西》,直到1911年最高法院宣布标准石油公司解散并让他退休。自从19世纪90年代后期二
洛克菲勒极少涉足商界,而是更多地从事慈善活动。他一生中所捐献的资金达到5亿5千多万。其中受捐数额峨多的有浸礼会、基督教青年会、芝加哥大学以及洛克菲勒医学研究所(1953年更名为洛克菲勒大学)。1913年,他设立洛克菲勒墓金会,这个基金会近10年来是国家财政的主要支付机构。对某些人来说,他传奇的一生续写了美国成功历史的神话;而对另一些人来说,他又是自由资本主义的象征。
 

英语词汇注释

prosper vi. 兴隆,昌盛
refinery n. 精练厂
to the extent 在……程度上
monopolistic adj. 独占性的
lead to 导致
disburser n. 支付者,付出者

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