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大学英语四六级晨读经典365:夏日激情篇 162 Barbara McClintock芭芭拉·麦克林托克(mp3)

merryangle87 于2014-09-19发布 l 已有人浏览
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芭芭拉关于转基因的发现,改变了世界。这些发现传递到各个领域,带来了新的发现,现代的生物学、遗传学,医药化学都从中受益,发生了质的飞跃。
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162 Barbara McClintock

162 芭芭拉·麦克林托克

Until recently. scientific research was considered beyond most women's abilities.despite notable historical exceptions - such as that of the great 19th century codiscoverer of radioactivity. Marie Curie. If a woman displayed natural talent in science and mathematics. the option to pursue her talents as a scientist vras likely to be closed off in favor of more traditional roles: mother, wife. and homemaker Sadly, this was true in America even as late as the 1950s That is what makes Barbara McClintock and her lifelong achievements in genetics all the more notable McClintock launched her scientific career at Cornell in 1919 and. in the face of social adversity and tremendous intellectual challenges. established herself among the great geneticists of this century.

直到现在.人们仍然认为大多数女性都没有从有事科学家研究的能力,尽管有很多著名的历史上的破例。例如,19世纪伟大的放射性元素的发现者玛丽·居里。如果一位女性在自然科学和数学领域显现出了她的天赋,那么,—般的观点认为,成为一名科学家施展她的才能似乎会抹杀她应扮演的一些传统角色:母亲.妻子和主妇。不幸的是,到了20世纪50年代末,这种观点仍然被美国公众所认可。这也促使芭芭拉·麦克林托克和她一生在遗传学上的成就闻名于世。1919年,在康乃尔,面对社会灾难和巨大的能力挑战,麦克林托克开始涉足科学事业.将自己置身于那个世纪伟大的遗传学家行列中。

At the time McClintock started her career. scientists were just becoming aware of the connection between heredity and events they could actually observe in cells under the microscope. McClintock pioneered the field of maize cytogenetics. or the cellular analysis of genetic phenomena in com. which for the first time provided a visual connection between certain inheritable traits and their physical basis in the chromosome.

在麦克林托克开始她的事业时,科学家还只是看到了遗传学与用显微镜能观察到的细胞内的物质之间存在联系。而麦克林托克却从玉米染色体细胞遗传学的领域开始研究,或者称之为玉米遗传现象的细胞分析。这初步展现出染色体中特定的可遗传特性和它们的物质基础之间看得见的联系。

McClintock rose to many challenges throughout her career - not only scientific but personal - from other scientists who felt intimidated or threatened by what one of her colleagues described as her ' independence. originality. and extraordinary accomplishment". In the most notable case. Lowell Randolph. her advisor and colleague, became extremely irritated with McClintock's success in solving a problem he had spent his entire life working on McClintock became the dominant member of his research team, and Randolph found this intolerable. McClintock soon departed, going on to greater things.

在她的事业中,麦克林托克不仅对科学家,而且对她自身都提出更多的挑战。这点可以从她的同事们对她的描述中看出,他们说麦克林托克”独立,富有创造力,成绩突出”。最有名的一个例子就是,她成功地解决了一个问题,而她的指导教授兼同事洛威尔·兰道夫花了毕生的精力,也未能解决,这令他非常恼怒?后来,麦克林托克成了他的研究小组主要骨干,兰道夫感到难以容忍。因此,麦克林托克很快离开,开始去从事更伟大的事业。

For her ground-breaking work in the genetics of corn, Barbara McClintock eamed a place among the leaders in genetics. She was elected to the prestigious National Academy of Sciences in 1944 Despite this, she still met with social adversity in her department at the University of Missouri and finally left there. too. She kept her next appointment at the Carnegie Institute at Cold Spring Harbor for the rest of her life.

因为芭芭拉·麦克林托克在玉米遗传学上的突出成就,她最终在遗传学的领头人中占据了一席之地。1944年,她入选著名的国家科学院。尽管如此,在她所在的密苏里州大学的研究所里。她仍然摆脱不了社会的厄运。最后,她依然离开了那里。接着,她来到了冰泉港实验室,并在那里度过了她的余生。

In 1983. Barbara McClintock was awarded a Nobel Prize in Genetics. To this day, her work is highly esteemed, still relevant despite the fact that much of it was completed over half a century ago. before the advent of the molecular era.

1983年,芭芭拉·麦克林托克获得了诺贝尔遗传学奖。尽管在分子生物时代到来之前,即半个多世纪之前,她的大多数研究成果已经得出,但是直到今天,她的贡献才获得高度的重视和肯定。
 

英语词汇注释

talent n. 才能,天资
option n. 选择
become aware of 觉察到
heredity n. 遗传
chromosome n. 染色体
intimidate vt. 威胁,恐吓
irritated adj. 恼怒的,生气的

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