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翻译技巧:如何翻译外位语

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yun 于2016-11-30发布 l 已有人浏览
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什么是外位语?外位语如何翻译?

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实际上指相同事物的两个词或短句拆开来出现在两个地方,用一个做句子的成分,把另外一个放在句外。我们就把这个居于结构之外的成分叫外位语,那个结构之内的成分叫本位语。举个简单的栗子”关起门来搞建设,这样是不行的”,其中”关起门来搞建设”是外位语,”这”是本位语,对于这类句子我们主要有两种方法:”译出来”和”译进去”.

一、译出来

所谓”译出来”即将外位语译成一个独立的成分与主句分离,分以下三种情况

1.译成外位语结构

如:
然而朋友们把多量的同情,多量的爱,多量的欢乐,多量的眼泪分了给我,这些东西都是生存所必需的。
My friends then gave me in large quantities sympathy, love, joy and tears—things essential for existence.
有喜有忧,有笑有泪,有花有实,有香有色,既须劳动 ,又长见识 ,这就是养花的乐趣。(老舍:《养花》)
Joy and sorrow, laughter and tears, flowers and fruit ,fragrance and color, manual labor and increased knowledge all these make up the joy of flower cultivation.
以上两例,都是套用汉语中含有外位语结构的句子框架来翻译。

2.译为独立的一个句子或者是并列句

有些朋友,连他们的名字我以前也不知道,他们却关心我的健康,处处打听我的“病况”,直到他们看见了我那被日光晒黑了的脸和膀子,他们才放心地微笑了,这种情形的确值得人掉泪。
 Some, whom I did not even know by name, showed concern over my health and went about inquiring after me. It was not until they saw my suntanned face and arms that they began to smile a smile of relief. All that was enough to move one to tears.
世间有不少的人为了家庭抛弃朋友,至少也会在家庭和朋友之间划一个界限,把家庭看得比朋友重过若干倍。这似乎是很自然的事情。
Many people forsake their friends in favor of their own families, or at least draw a line of demarcation between families and friends, considering the former to be many times more important than the latter. That seems to be a matter of course.
亵渎的人固然不少,我可总不忍——这一套又是书生之见。
Though many other people violate the taboo, I for my part cannot bear to do the same. This again is the impractical view of a bookish person.

3.将外位语结构译为由介词of ,as for, as to, as regard等引导的介词短语放在句首,通常适用于句子中出现”至于”或含有此意味的句子

至于不挑食,其心态与上面相似。
As to picky eating, I often find people barely over forty becoming very choosy about food.

4. 译为同位语或非限制性定语从句

一个人既不能独立转移风气,也该在消极方面有所自守,邦同作弊,赞助越出常轨的事儿,总可以免了吧,——这自然是书生之见,不免通达的人一笑。
If it is beyond one's capacity to single-handedly stem the prevailing social evils, one should at least be self-disciplined so as not to make matters worse. All this is undoubtedly the pedantic view of bookish person—a view which must sound ridiculous to all sensible gentlemen.(译为同位语)
世人常称大学为“最高学府”,这名称易滋误解,好像过此 以上即无学问可言。
 A university has often been misleadingly referred to as "the highest seat of learning", which sounds as if there were no more learning to speak of beyond it.
(译为定语从句)

二、译进去

即将外位语作为句子的一部分来翻译,”融入”到句子中

1. 将外语结构转化成为名词从句或不定式短语,置于句末,作逻辑主语,而用it作形式主语。例如:

不调查、不研究、提起笔来“硬写”,这就是不负责的态度.
It is sheer irresponsibility to pick up the pen and "force ourselves to write" without investigation or study.

2. 将"这""这些"略去不译,直接把外位语结构译为句中的一个成分

今天忽然听说北京大学要开一个运动会,这个消息使我很高兴。
Today I was very happy to hear that Peking University was about to schedule a sports meet.
他们根据自己的文学欣赏的才能,根据不同时代潮流,对文学作品提出自己的看法,互相争论,互相学习,互相启发,互相提高,这也是一种创作活动,对文学理论的建设会有很大的好处.
In accordance with their own capacity for literary appreciation and the different historical trends, the views they put forward for mutual discussion, study, inspiration and improvement are also something creative and conducive to the development of literary theory.
逢到和旧友谈话,就不知不觉地把话题转到旧事上去,这是我的习惯。
When chatting away with my old friends, I am in the habit of unwittingly channeling the topic of conversation toward things of former days.
这种译法比较灵活,童鞋们要在平时多做积累。

3. 指代主语的外位语,可译为句中的表语,有些地方称这种方法为”倒置法”

如:
工厂、铁道、枪炮等,这些是物质条件。
The material conditions are factories, railways, firearms and the like.
皮包,水壶,剃须刀,旅行药箱等等,这些是旅行的必需品。
The necessities for traveling are leather satchels, flasks, razors, small medicine kits, and the like.
实现经济发展,这是我们今后相当长时间的中心工作.
For a relatively long period ahead ,the focus of our work is to realize the economic development.

综上,我们可以看到,汉译英时,外位语的处理方法是多种多样的,有时可直接原封不动地套用原文的框架,有时可进行必要的转换。但是究竟选择何种方法,要充分考虑到英汉语不同的句法特点,结合上下文,以达到最佳的翻译效果。

【文章来源:沪江英语】

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