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翻译赏析:张培基英译散文赏析之《容忍》

yun 于2016-10-27发布 l 已有人浏览
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季羡林(1911年8月6日—2009年7月11日),中国山东省聊城市临清人,国际著名东方学大师、语言学家、文学家、国学家、佛学家、史学家、教育家和社会活动家。

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容忍  Patience

季羡林  Ji Xianlin

人处在家庭和社会中,有时候恐怕需要讲点容忍。
In home and social life one probably needs to be a little bit patient now and then.

要点:
此处的“容忍”译为patience,较fortitude, perseverance, endurance相比,patience含有一定的道德品质成分


唐朝有一个姓张的大官,家庭和睦,美名远扬,一直传到了皇帝耳中。皇帝赞美他治家有道,问他道在何处,他一气写了一百个“忍”字。这说得非常清楚:家庭中要互相容忍,才能和睦。这个故事非常有名。在旧社会,中国姓张的全以祖先的容忍为荣了。

During the Tang Dynasty, a high official surnamed Zhang was known far and wide for his harmonious home life. When the emperor gave him praise and asked him how he had been running the family to achieve harmony, he wrote down without a break one hundred characters meaning “patience”. Evidently, the message he tried to bring home to the emperor was that family members must be accommodating to each other for the sake of harmony. That’s famous story. Consequently, people surnamed Zhang in the old days all felt greatly honored that one of their ancestors had been known for exercising patience.

要点:
1,“家庭和睦,美名远扬”可合译为“以其和睦的家庭生活而远近闻名”,was known far and wide for his harmonious home life
2,“问他道在何处”即“问他如何治家求和睦”译为asked him how he had been running the family to achieve harmony
3,“他一气写了一百个‘忍’字”译为he wrote down without a break one hundred characters meaning “patience”.其中“一口气”译为without a break,in one breath, at one go
4,“这说得非常清楚:家庭中要互相容忍,才能和睦。”译为Evidently, the message he triedto bring home to the emperor was that family members must be accommodating to each other for the sake of harmony.其中to bring home to意为“使…深刻体会”如:What do I have to do to bring home to you the urgency of the situation?  你要我做什么才能使你认清情况的紧急呀?


但是容忍也并不容易。1935年, 我乘西伯利亚铁路的火车经苏联赴德国,车过中苏边界上的满洲里,停车四小时,由苏联海关检查行李。这是无可厚非的,入国必须检查,这是世界公例。但是,当时的苏联大概认为,我们这一帮人,从一个资本主义国家到另一个资本主义国家,恐怕没有好人,必须严查,以防万一。检查其他行李,我决无意见。但是,在哈尔滨买的一把最粗糙的铁皮壶,却成了被检查的首要对象。这里敲敲,那里敲敲,薄薄的一层铁皮决藏不下一颗炸弹的,然而他们却敲打不止。我真有点无法容忍,想 要发火。我身旁有一位年老的老外,是与我们同车的,看到我的神态,在我耳旁悄悄地说了句:Patience is a great virtue(容忍是很大的美德)。我对他微笑,表示致谢。我立即心平气和,天下太平。
However, it is easier said than done to be tolerant towards others. In 1935, I traveled to Germany via the Soviet Union over the Siberian railway. At the Sino-Soviet border in Manzhouli, the train stopped for a 4-hour-inspection by the Soviet customs. That was all right because entry inspection was an international practice. But the then Soviet Union subjected me to a closer-than-usual customs inspection probably on the assumption that I, like all those traveling from one capitalist country to another, must be a dubious character. I had no objection to the check-up of my belongings except when a crudely-made tinplate kettle that I had bought at Harbin became something very fishy to them. The kettle was certainly too flimsy for holding a hidden bomb, but they barked up the wrong tree and kept clanking it repeatedly here and there. Driven beyond the limit of my patience, I was about to flare up when an elderly foreigner, who was my co-passenger, whispered to me, “Patience is a great virtue.” That calmed me down, and I turned to him with a smile by way of expressing my thanks.

要点:
1,“这是无可厚非的”意为“这并没有什么不对”译为That was all right,或That was beyond reproach
2,“一把最粗糙的铁皮壶”译为a crudely-made tinplate kettle,其中“铁皮”即“马口铁”译为tinplate,这种词汇的细节是需要长时间的积累才能把握的~
3,“…却成了被检查的首要对象”译为became something very fishy to them,其中fishy意为“可疑的,值得怀疑的”意同dubious,但比较不正式
4,“薄薄的一层铁皮决藏不下一颗炸弹的,然而他们却敲打不止”译为The kettle was certainly too flimsy for holding a hidden bomb, but they barked up the wrong tree andkept clanking it repeatedly here and there.其中“they barked up the wrong tree”意作“捕风捉影”是译文中的增译部分
5,“敲打不止”译为kept clanking it repeatedly here and there,译者在此使用拟声词clanking(把…敲得叮当响)使这一动作更加形象传神
6,“我对他微笑,表示致谢”译为I turned to him with a smile by way of expressing my thanks.其中by way of是成语,意同for the purpose of
综述:
除了上述几点外,注意本段开头一句,译者在译多个动词“乘”“经”“过”时,以介词代动词的手法~


看来容忍确是一件好事,甚至是一种美德。但是,我认为,也必须有一个界限。我们到了德国以后,就碰到这个问题。旧时欧洲流行决斗之风,谁污辱了谁,特别是谁 的女情人,被污辱者一定要提出决斗,或用手枪,或用剑。普希金就是在决斗中被枪打死的。我们到了的时候,此风已息,但仍发生。我们几个中国留学生相约:如 果外国人污辱了我们自身,我们要揣度形势,主要要容忍,以东方的恕道克制自己。但是,如果他们污辱我们的国家,则无论要同他们玩儿命,决不容忍。这就是我 们容忍的界限。幸亏这样的事情没有发生,否则我就活不到今天在这里舞笔弄墨了。
Obviously, patience is really a good thing or rather a great virtue. But I think there should be a demarcation line to be observed. Fighting a duel was a common practice in old Germany. One who suffered an insult to himself or especially his girlfriend would challenge the offender to a fight in which they used pistols or swords. The great Russian poet A. S. Pushkin was one of those shot dead in a duel. At the time when I arrived in Germany together with some other Chinese students, the practice of dueling was still lingering on there though less prevalent. We pledged that in case of ourselves being insulted we shouldweigh the pros and cons and give precedence to patience in line with the Oriental doctrine of magnanimity, but that in case of a humiliating insult directed against our dear country, we should wage a life-and-death struggle against the offender without showing any patience. That is what I mean by drawing a demarcation line. Fortunately, nothing of the kind happened; otherwise, I might not have survived to write this article today.

要点:
1,“看来容忍确是一件好事,甚至是一种美德”中的“甚至是一种美德”可理解为“确切来说,是一种美德”译为Obviously, patience is really a good thing or rather a great virtue.
2,“提出决斗”即“challenge a fight”
3,“普希金就是在决斗中被枪打死的”译为The great Russian poetA. S. Pushkin was one of those shot dead in a duel.其中The great Russian poet属于解释性词语
4,“揣度形势”即“权衡利弊”“见机行事”,译为weigh the pros and cons
5,“玩命”即“进行生死较量”译为wage a life-and-death struggle against the offender
6,“否则我就活不到今天在这里舞笔弄墨了”即“否则我就不会在这里写文章了”otherwise, I might not have survived to write this article today.
综述:
本段行文流畅灵活,译文也是在用词和句式上灵活多变,十分贴近原作风格~


现在我们中国人的容忍水平,看了真让人气短。在公共汽车上,挤挤碰碰是常见的现象。如果碰了或者踩了别人,连忙说一声:“对不起!”就能够化干戈为玉帛。然 而有不少人连“对不起”都不会说了,于是就相吵相骂,甚至于扭打,甚至打得头破血流。我们这个伟大的民族怎么竟成了这个样子!我在自己心中暗暗祝愿:容忍兮,归来!
 It is disheartening nowadays to see so little patience shown by our compatriots. On a crowded bus, for instance, when you happen to bump into a co-passenger or step on his feet, an immediate word of apology from you willserve to prevent a dispute. But many even grudge saying, “Sorry!” thereupon a quarrel or a fist-fight will follow until both parties are beaten black and blue. Oh, what has brought our great nation to such a pass? May PATIENCE come back to stay!

要点:
1,“让人气短”即“令人沮丧”,译为disheartening
2,“化干戈为玉帛”译为serve to prevent a dispute
3,black and blue原意为“青一块紫一块”,如今作“头破血流”
4,pass有个不常见的意思“阶段;步骤”此处用的就是这个意思,
In the first pass all the addresses are loaded into the database.
第一步,所有地址均输入数据库。
综述:
注意本段一些中国习语的翻译~


【文章来源:沪江英语】

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