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新视野大学英语读写教程词汇 第二册 Unit 2b

hetao 于2013-05-23发布 l 已有人浏览
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New Words<1>competition n.[U] the activities of competing 竞争There has always been intense competition between companies for bigger market shares. 公司之间一直进行着激烈的竞争,以获得更大的市场份额。Five students were selected to go in for the provincial physical competition. 有五位学生被挑选参加全省的物理竞赛。<2>sake n.(for the ~ of)1. [U] for the purpose of 为了...目的Do you think that I am talking for the sake of talking? Please listen carefully! 你以为我是在为讲话而讲话?请仔细听着!2. [U] for the good or benefit of 为了...好处I understand that Father is strict with me just for my sake. 我明白
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New Words

<1>competition n.[U] the activities of competing 竞争

There has always been intense competition between companies for bigger market shares. 公司之间一直进行着激烈的竞争,以获得更大的市场份额。

Five students were selected to go in for the provincial physical competition. 有五位学生被挑选参加全省的物理竞赛。

<2>sake n.(for the ~ of)

1. [U] for the purpose of 为了...目的

Do you think that I am talking for the sake of talking? Please listen carefully! 你以为我是在为讲话而讲话?请仔细听着!

2. [U] for the good or benefit of 为了...好处

I understand that Father is strict with me just for my sake. 我明白父亲是为了我好才对我要求严格。

The poor mother worked day and night to make money for the sake of her sick daughter. 可怜的母亲为了生病的孩子日夜劳作挣钱。

<3>athlete n.[C] sb. who competes in sports competitions 运动员

Carl Lewis is one of the most extraordinary athletes in the US. 卡尔·刘易斯是美国最卓越的运动员之一。

Do you believe that athletes compete with each other for nothing but honor? 你相信运动员仅仅是为了荣誉而相互竞争吗?

<4>sacrifice vt.give up sth., esp. for a good purpose or belief 牺牲;奉献

It is absolutely unwise to sacrifice your health for your work. 为了工作牺牲健康绝对是不明智的。

My wife sacrificed a lot to take good care of the baby. 为了照顾宝宝,我妻子牺牲了很多。

<5>injury n.[C,U] a wound or damage to part of one's body 伤害;损害

All construction workers should be insured against injury at work. 所有的建筑工人都应该保工伤险。

Tears came to her eyes when she saw the serious injuries on her boy's legs. 她看到儿子腿上严重的伤口,眼眶里不禁盈满了泪水。

<6>exploit vt.use sth. fully so as to get benefit from it 利用;剥削

It has been reported that his company exploits the employees in various ways. 据报道他的公司以各种方式剥削工人。

I won't exploit your difficulty to beat you in competition. 我不会利用你的困难来在比赛中取胜。

<7>glory n.[U] great honor 光荣;荣誉

The athletes came back with glory after they won the championship. 运动员们夺得冠军后载誉归来。

Those who sacrificed themselves for the sake of our nation deserve everlasting glory. 为了我们国家而牺牲自己的人应该获得永恒的荣誉。

<8>virtue n.[C] a good quality in character or behavior 美德

The young man was admired by all because of his virtues: courage and truthfulness. 年轻人因为勇敢和诚实的美德而受到大家的钦佩。

A man of virtue deserves respect no matter whether he is rich or not. 有德行的人无论贫富都值得尊重。

<9>determination n. [U] the strong will to do sth. 决心;毅力

My sister is a girl of determination—once she decides to do something, she will never gives up easily. 我妹妹是个意志坚强的人——她一旦下决心做某事,就绝不会轻易放弃。

The athletes' determination is something worth admiring. 运动员们的毅力是值得赞赏的。

<10>dash n.1. [sing., C] a short race for runners 短距离赛跑

His classmates cheered for him after he won the first prize in the 100-meter dash. 他在100米短跑中获得第一名后,同班同学为他欢呼。

2. [sing., C] a sudden, quick run 奔;冲

The dog made a dash for the strangers and frightened them away. 狗向陌生人冲了过去,把他们吓走了。

Hearing the fire alarm, she made a dash for the door. 一听到火警声,她就往大门奔去。

vi.run quickly and suddenly 奔;冲

The young man dashed through the crowd to catch the thief. 年轻人从人群中冲过去抓小偷。

When he was dashing cross the street to catch the bus, he knocked down a middle-aged woman. 他冲过街道去赶公共汽车时撞倒了一位中年妇女。

<11>competitive a. 1. liking to compete 喜欢竞争的;好胜的

She is always after something because of her competitive nature. 由于她争强好胜,总是在追求些什么。

My brother is so competitive that he always tries to be the best in everything. 我弟弟非常好胜,任何事情都要尽力做到最好。

2. relating to competition 竞争的;有竞争力的

To remain competitive in the local market, our products need to be improved. 我们的产品需要加以改进才能保持在当地市场的竞争力。

I promise to offer you the most competitive price. 我保证给你最具竞争力的价格。

<12>defy vt.1. do sth. that is considered impossible; challenge 向...挑战

I defy you to prove that I am wrong. 我倒要看看你能不能证明是我错了.

Carl's friends defied him to jump into the river from the bridge. 卡尔的朋友们激他从桥上跳到河里去。

2. refuse to obey sb. or sth. 违抗;不服从

Many kids defy their parents and play the computer games for hours everyday. 很多孩子不听父母的话,每天要打好几个小时的电子游戏。

When the teacher asked the boy to come to the front, he defied her by remaining in his seat. 老师让那男孩到前面来,他却不服从,仍旧坐在自己座位上。

<13>stopwatch n.[C] a watch used for measuring the exact time it takes to do sth., esp. in a race 秒表

A stopwatch is different from a wrist watch. 秒表和普通手表不一样。

<14>pursue vt.1. continue doing an activity or trying to achieve sth. over a long period of time 从事;追求

Seeing that no agreement would be reached at the meeting, they decided not to pursue the matter any more. 他们发现在会上不可能达成任何协议,于是决定不再继续讨论此事。

Pursuing her study in a foreign country, she always felt homesick. 她在异国求学时经常想家。

2. chase sb. or sth. in order to catch them 追赶;追逐

The hunter had been pursuing a wounded bear for days in the forest. 猎人连续几天都在森林里追捕一只受伤的熊。

The policeman wounded himself while pursuing an escaped prisoner. 警察在追捕逃犯的时候受了伤。

<15>strip n.[C] a narrow piece 条;带

a strip of paper 纸条

a strip of land 一块狭长的土地

vt.remove the covering of sth. 剥去;除去

It took me several hours to strip the wallpaper from the walls. 我花了几小时将壁纸从墙上撕下来。

The girl stripped leaves off the mulberry tree to feed her silkworms. 女孩从桑树上摘下桑叶来喂蚕。

<16>singular a.1. very great or very noticeable 卓越的;非凡的

He showed singular wisdom in dealing with the matter. 他处理这一事件时展现了非凡的智慧。

His singular achievements rank him among the greatest scientists. 他卓越的成就使他成为最伟大的科学家之一。

2. of or being a word representing one 单数的

The noun "datum" is singular; it's the singular form of "data". 名词datum是单数,它是data一词的单数形式。

<17>phenomenon n. 1. [C] sb. or sth. that is very unusual 奇才;奇迹

His son could recite lots of poems at three and was considered a phenomenon. 他儿子三岁时就能背诵许多诗,被认为是奇才。

Unable to explain natural phenomena, ancient people believed in the existence of many gods. 古代人因为无法解释大自然的奇特现象,就相信许多神的存在。

2. [C] an event or situation that can be seen to happen or exist 现象

The modern society has witnessed the increasing phenomenon of the single parent family. 现代社会单亲家庭的情况越来越普遍。

In my home town, heavy snow in winter is a common phenomenon. 我家乡冬天下大雪是很平常的事儿。

<18> phenomenal a.very unusual; very great or impressive 异常的;惊人的

The hero showed phenomenal courage in danger and saved quite a few people from the big fire. 这位英雄在危险中表现出非凡的勇气,从大火中救出了很多人。

Look! The sun now looks like a ring! What a phenomenal view! 看!太阳现在看上去是个圆环!真是奇异的景象啊!

<19>horizon n.1. (~s) the limit of one's ideas, knowledge, and experience 范围;眼界;视野

Many people travel around to broaden their horizons. 许多人四处旅游以开阔眼界。

While reading extensively, Dora found her horizons expanded. 多拉博览群书的同时发现自己的视野也随之开阔了。

2. (the ~) the line far away where the sky seems to meet the earth 地平线

The sun disappeared below the horizon gradually and the day ended. 太阳逐渐消失在地平线下,白天结束了。

Seeing a ship appear on the horizon in the distance, the man went almost wild with joy. 看见一只船出现在远处的地平线上,那人简直欣喜若狂。

<20> sprinter n.[C] an athlete for a short race 短跑运动员

He is a well-known sprinter. 他是著名短跑运动员。

<21>observer n.1. [C] sb. who sees or looks at sth. 观看者

He has been a devoted observer of nature since his childhood. 他从小就是一个热衷于观察大自然的人。

The stories told by the observers were almost the same. 旁观者们的讲述几乎是一致的。

2. [C] sb. who attends meetings, events, etc. to observe what is happening 观察员

The committee will send several observers to be present at the meeting. 委员会将派几名观察员出席会议。

The president suggested that a team of UN observers should be sent to the Mid-east peace talk. 总统建议应该派一队联合国观察员参加中东和平谈判。

<22>crack n.[C] a sudden loud sound 爆裂声;劈啪声

Hearing a crack of a gun, the police rushed in and saw the man lying on the floor, dead. 警察听到枪响后冲了进去,看到这人躺在地板上,已经死了。

Did you hear a crack just now? Something must have happened! 你刚才有没有听到爆裂声?肯定出事了!

v.1. (cause to) make a sudden loud sound (使)发出爆裂声

The rider cracked his whip and the horse ran even faster. 骑马的人把鞭子挥得啪啪作响,马儿跑得更快了。

Thunder cracked while it was raining very heavily. 大雨滂沱,雷声轰隆。

2. (cause to) break (使)破裂

The glass on the table was cracked but not broken. 桌上的玻璃裂了,但还没碎。

I don't know when the bowl cracked, but I will throw it away now. 我不知道桌上的碗什么时候裂开来的,但我现在就扔掉它。

<23>trail vi. move slowly, esp. behind other people 拖沓地走;无精打采地慢走

Bob trailed along the street, wondering where he could find a job. 鲍伯沿街无精打采地走着,不知哪儿能找到工作。

Feeling very tired, the girl trailed behind her friends on the way back home. 在回家的路上,女孩感到十分疲惫,慢吞吞地走在朋友们的后面。

vt.follow sb. secretly 跟踪;尾随

The hunter trailed the wounded bear to its cave. 猎人追踪受伤的熊到了它的洞穴。

I trailed her to the railway station and then she disappeared suddenly. 我跟踪她到了火车站,她这时突然就消失了。

<24>explosive a.1. sudden and rapid 迅猛的

There was an explosive growth in our business in the early 1990s. 我们的业务在二十世纪九十年代早期有个迅猛的增长。

The small city has taken on a new look because of its explosive development. 这个小城市因为发展迅速已呈现出一派新气象。

2. likely to explode 易爆炸的;易发作的

Explosive materials must be kept far away from fire. 易爆炸的物品必须远离火苗。

Don't talk about explosive issues with your business partners when you are chatting with each other. 当你和商业伙伴闲聊时,不要谈论容易引起争端的事件。

n.[C, U] a substance that can cause an explosion 爆炸物

Explosives must be handled carefully. 爆炸物必须小心轻放。

The police searched his apartment and found one hundred pounds of explosives. 警察搜查他的公寓,发现了一百磅的爆炸物品。

<25>overcome vt.(overcame, overcome) fight and win against sb. or sth. 战胜;击败

The parents tried to help their little girl to overcome her fear of darkness. 父母设法帮助他们的小女孩战胜对黑暗的恐惧。

You must be self-confident enough to overcome difficulties. 要克服困难,你必须有足够的自信。

<26>committee n.[C] a group of people chosen to do a particular job or for special duties 委员会

The government decided to set up a special committee to deal with this problem. 政府决定设立一个专门的委员会来处理这一问题。

All committee members were required to make a close study of the report. 所有的委员会成员都被要求仔细研究一下这份报告。

<27>indicate vt.show that sth. is true or exists 表明;显示

He shook his head to indicate that he didn't agree with me. 他摇头表示不同意我的看法。

Our research indicates that women are better than men at dealing with stress. 我们的研究表明女人比男人更擅长处理压力。

<28>steroid n.[C] 类固醇

<29>conquest n. [U] the act of taking control of sb. or sth. 攻占;占领;征服

This region was once one of the French conquests in Africa. 这地区曾经是法国在非洲的占领地之一。

People used to talk bout the conquest of nature, but now we realize we must stay in harmony with it. 人们过去常常谈论征服大自然,但我们现在意识到了我们必须和自然和平相处。

<30>condemn vt.express strong disapproval of sb. or sth. 谴责

People all condemned him for ill-treating animals. 大家都谴责他虐待动物。

Those who always act selfishly without consideration for others should be condemned by all. 那些经常行为自私而不考虑他人的人应该受到大家的谴责。

<31>condemnation n. [C, U] the act of condemning 谴责

The young man kept swearing at his mother despite others' condemnation. 尽管别人都谴责他,年轻人还是继续咒骂他的母亲。

His rude behavior deserves condemnation. 他粗鲁的行为应该受到谴责。

<32>opponent n.[C] sb. who takes the opposite side, esp. in playing or fighting 对手;敌手

He has only a small chance of beating his opponent. 他击败对手的希望渺茫。

As a very traditional person, old Jim was always an opponent to new ideas. 老吉姆是个非常传统的人,总是反对新思想。

<33>deny vt.1. say that sth. is not true, or that one does not believe sth. 否认

Why should I deny it if I really said those words to her? 如果我真的对她说了那些话,为什么要否认呢?

There is no denying that my sister is more beautiful and intelligent, but it doesn't mean that she could insult me. 无可否认我妹妹比我更美丽聪慧,但这并不意味着她可以侮辱我。

2. not allow sb. to have or do sth. 拒绝(给予)

The girl was denied the chance of the job just because of her gender. 女孩仅仅因为她的性别而没有得到工作机会。

It does no good to your boy if you never deny him anything. 如果你对儿子有求必应,对他并没有任何益处。

<34>counter v.reply to a criticism that one disagrees with 反驳

He is so arrogant that he countered any criticism of him. 他非常自大,对他的任何批评他都会反驳。

She had tried every means to counter the original charge, but failed. 她想尽了一切办法想要推翻原判,但都失败了。

<35>rumor n. (BrE rumour) [C, U] information that is passed from one person to another and which may or may not be true 谣言,传闻

Rumor has it that the general manager will leave his position next month. 有传言说总经理将于下个月离职。

I just wonder where all these rumors about her illness come from. 我正想知道有关她生病的种种传说是哪里来的。

<36>formula n. 1. [C] a method or set of principles for dealing with a problem or achieving a result 方法;方案

We're still searching for a peace formula. 我们仍在寻求取得和平的方案。

Her formula for success should be written down and turned into a book. 她的成功秘诀应该写成书出版。

2. [C] a series of numbers or letters that represent a rule in science or mathematics 公式;方程式

The scientist was famous for developing a series of physical formulas. 这位科学家因创立一系列的物理公式而著名。

chemical formulas 化学公式

<37>suspicion n. 1. [C, U] a feeling of not trusting sb. or sth. 猜疑;不信任

When asked whether he had told the truth, he didn't even dare to look at me, which aroused my suspicion. 当被问到是否讲了真话时,他都不敢看着我,这就引起了我的猜疑。

Lily treated everyone with suspicion, no matter how well she knows him. 丽丽对每个人都持怀疑态度,不管她有多了解他。

2. [C, U] a feeling that sb. has done sth. wrong 怀疑;疑心

On hearing that her boyfriend had been arrested under suspicion of spying, the girl was greatly astonished. 当听说自己的男朋友因涉嫌犯了间谍罪而被逮捕时,女孩惊呆了。

On suspicion of using drugs, the athlete was required to go through a drug test. 这位运动员因被怀疑使用了药物而被要求进行药检。

<38>erosion n.[U] the process by which sth. is gradually reduced or destroyed 侵蚀;腐蚀

Soil erosion might be prevented if more trees can be planted here. 如果能在这儿种植更多的树木,就有可能预防土地受侵蚀。

The president's speech did little to prevent the erosion of people's confidence in the government. 总统的演说没能阻止人们逐渐对政府失去信心。

<39>participation n. [U] the act of taking part in an activity or event 参与,参加

The participation of the middle management in decision-making will do good to our company. 中间管理层参与决策将对我们公司有利。

These students were praised for their active participation in campus activities. 这些学生因积极参加校园活动而受到表扬。

<40>sprint vi.run at one's fastest speed, esp. at a short distance 冲刺

The racers sprinted towards the finish line. 赛跑者们冲向终点线。

I had sprinted to meet her as she got off the bus. 她下车时,我已飞奔过去迎接她。

<41>relay n.[C] 接力赛

<42>reception n.1. [sing.] a welcome for sb. or sth. 接待;欢迎

The official felt somewhat surprised at the cool reception he got in his home town. 这位官员对在家乡受到的冷遇有些惊讶。

The president got an unfriendly reception during his visit to that European country. 总统在出访那个欧洲国家时受到的接待并不友好。

2. [C] a large formal party to welcome sb. or to celebrate sth. 招待会;欢迎会

They are making preparations for a reception to welcome the new mayor. 他们正在为欢迎新市长而举行的招待会做准备。

About five hundred people will be present at the wedding reception. 大概会有五百个人出席婚宴。

<43>amazing a.causing great surprise 令人惊异的

The film is so amazing that I'd like to see it again. 这部电影太精彩了,我想再看一遍。

It's really amazing that all three of her daughters are students of Tsinghua University. 她的三个女儿都是清华大学的学生,这太令人吃惊了!

Phrases and Expressions

<44>act ashave the role or function of 作为

The blind man has a nice dog acting as a reliable guide for him. 这个盲人有一条不错的狗当他可靠的向导。

My dictionaries act as great helpers in my study. 我的词典是我学习中的好帮手。

<45>above allmost importantly 最重要的是

And above all, your room must be kept clean all the time. 最重要的是,你的房间必须一直保持整洁。

We should respect people around us, above all those elderly people. 我们应该尊重身边的人,尤其是老人。

<46>not hear of itrefuse to accept a suggestion or offer 不听;拒绝听取

If I suggested you stop working and have a rest, I know you wouldn't hear of it. 虽然我建议你停下工作来休息一会儿,可我知道你不会那样做的。

When my father asked me to spend more time preparing for the exam, I simply wouldn't hear of it. 我父亲要求我多花些时间准备考试时,我就是不愿意。

<47>set one's mind onbe determined to do sth. or obtain sth. 决心做某事(或得到某物)

Having set his mind on a better job, Joe began to read job advertisement in newspapers carefully. 乔伊下定决心找份更好的工作后便开始仔细阅读报上的招聘广告。

If you have set your mind on a nice future for yourself, study hard from now on. 如果你决心为自己创造一个美好的未来,那就从现在开始努力学习吧。

<48>set the stage formake preparations for an event to take place 为...做好准备

They have done everything to set the stage for the coming conference. 他们已经为即将召开的会议作好了一切准备。

Susan is the head of the group responsible for setting the stage for the opening ceremony. 苏珊是负责为开幕式做准备工作的小组组长。

<49>focus on1. arrange the lens in an instrument so as to obtain a clear picture of sth. 聚焦于

All cameras were focused on the movie star when she tripped and fell. 当那位影星绊倒时,所有的照相机都对准了她。

The detective focused his telescope on his target. 侦探把望远镜对准了他的目标。

2. concentrate on sth. and pay particular attention to it 集中(精力)于

George was so sleepy that he couldn't focus on his work at all. 乔治太困了,根本无法集中精力工作。

We will focus on some complaints made by our customers in today's meeting. 今天的会议上我们将主要讨论客户的一些投诉。

<50>be used to (doing) sth.be familiar with sth. because of having done or experienced it many times 习惯于

Janet doesn't complain any more when her colleagues smoke at the office—she has simply become used to it. 同事们在办公室抽烟时,珍妮特不再抱怨了——她完全已经习惯了。

Being used to working overtime, she would put some chocolate into her handbag every morning. 她习惯了加班工作,每天早上都会在包里放些巧克力。

<51>hold one's breathstop breathing for a moment because of anxiety or excitement 屏住呼吸

People held their breath when the chairman was declaring which city would host the 2008 Olympics. 当主席宣布将由哪个城市主办2008年奥运会时,人们屏住了呼吸。

The horror movie made us hold our breath from time to time. 恐怖片使得我们不时地屏住呼吸。

<52>strip sb. of sth.take property, rights, titles, etc. away from sb. 剥夺

His wife said she would always be with him even if he were stripped of everything. 他妻子说即使他变得一无所有她也会一直和他在一起的。

The athlete was stripped of the honor and banned from the Olympics for the rest of his life. 那名运动员被取消了奖牌,并终生不得参加奥运会。

<53>charge sb. with sth. say openly that sb. has done sth. wrong 指控;控诉

The nice-looking girl was charged with stealing the jewels on exhibition. 这个漂亮的女孩被指控偷了展览会上的珠宝。

While he was charged with murder, he asserted he was not guilty. 虽然他被指控犯了谋杀罪,他仍然宣称自己是无辜的。

Proper Names

<54>Carl Lewis 卡尔·路易斯

<55>Ben Johnson 本·约翰逊


 

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