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高一英语下册知识点:Unit22 A world of fun 一个世界的乐趣(五)

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Unit22 A world of fun · 语法精讲 ·动词-ing形式用作状语 动词-ing形式短语可作状语,表示原因、时间、方式、伴随情况、结果或条件等多种意义. 1.相当于原因状语从句. Being ill(=As she was ill),she didn’t go to school today.今天她生病了,所以没来上学. 如果动词-ing形式表示的动作在谓语所表示的动作之前发生,就需要用完成形式. e.g.Not having received(=As I had not received) an answer,I wrote to him again. 因为没有接到回信,我又给他写了信. 2.相当于when等引导的从句. Hearing the good news (when he heard the good news),he jumped with joy. 听到这个好消息,他高兴得跑了起来. 如果动词-ing短语表示的动

Unit22 A world of fun


· 语法精讲 ·

动词-ing形式用作状语

动词-ing形式短语可作状语,表示原因、时间、方式、伴随情况、结果或条件等多种意义.

1.相当于原因状语从句.

Being ill(=As she was ill),she didn’t go to school today.今天她生病了,所以没来上学.

如果动词-ing形式表示的动作在谓语所表示的动作之前发生,就需要用完成形式.

e.g.Not having received(=As I had not received) an answer,I wrote to him again.

因为没有接到回信,我又给他写了信.

2.相当于when等引导的从句.

Hearing the good news (when he heard the good news),he jumped with joy.

听到这个好消息,他高兴得跑了起来.

如果动词-ing短语表示的动作与谓语表示的动作同时发生,常在短语前加上when或while.

e.g.Be careful when crossing the street.过街时当心.

When going to school,I met Mary.上学时我遇见了玛丽.

如果动词-ing表示的动作完成后,谓语表示的动作才发生,此时分词用完成形式.

e.g.Having finished his work(=After he finished his work),Henry went home.

亨利做完工作后就回家了.

3.表示行为方式、伴随情况或补充说明等.

e.g.Laughing and talking,they went into the room.他们又说又笑地走进房间.

4.表示结果.

e.g.Her mother died in 1969,leaving her with four younger brothers and sisters.

1969年她母亲死了,给她丢下4个弟妹.

5.表示条件.

e.g.Turning to the right(= If you turn to the right),you will find the place you want.

往右转,你就会找到你要找的地方了.

6.表让步状语.

e.g.Knowing all this,they still insisted on my paying for the damage.

虽然知道这一点,他们仍然坚持要求赔偿损失.

独立主格结构

独立主格结构由名词或代词加上其他成分(分词、不定式、名词、代词、形容词、副词或介词短语)构成,在语法上,是一个独立的短语不是句子,在意思上依附于整个句子,具有以下特点:

(1)独立主格结构的作用相当于状语从句,可表示时间、原因、条件、行为方式或伴随情况;

(2)独立主格结构可置于句首,也可以放在句尾;

(3)独立主格结构主要用于书面语;

(4)独立主格的逻辑主语与句中主语不同,不指同一个人或同一事物.

1.独立主格结构的构成

(1)with/without+名词/代词(宾格)+分词.

e.g.With him sitting next to her,she felt safe.有他坐在身旁,她感到很安全.

(2)名词(或代词主格)(逻辑主语)+分词.

e.g.Homework finished,he went to bed.家庭作业做完后,他上床睡觉.

(3)名词(逻辑主语)+介词短语/形容词/副词

e.g.He walked out of the room,face with anger.他走出房间,脸上带着愤怒.

2.独立主格结构的句法功能

(1)时间状语.e.g.The meeting over,they left the hall.会议结束之后,他们离开了大厅.

(2)原因状语.e.g.My watch having been lost,I don’t know what time it is.我的表丢了,我不知道现在是几点.

(3)条件状语.e.g.Time permitting,I shall go to the cinema with you.如果时间允许,我就和你去看电影.

(4)描述伴随行为或补充说明.e.g.Mary entered the room,with a big apple in hand.玛丽手里拿着一个大苹果走进了房间.

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