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英国语文BOOK 6 LESSON 1 The great siege of gibraltar 直布罗陀包围战(中英对照+mp3)

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《英国语文》第六册01课 the great siege of gibraltar 直布罗陀包围,该教程是了解英国人文历史、欣赏英国文学的优秀读本,含有中英双语课文对照阅读及mp3免费
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LESSON 1 The great siege of gibraltar(1779-1782)

第一课 直布罗陀包围战 (1779-1782)

Gibraltar①fell into the hands of the English in 1704, during the War of the Spanish Succession②—the war in which Marlborough gained so much glory for the English arms. Admiral Sir George Rooke had been sent to the Mediterranean, to watch the French and Spanish fleets. For a long time he was unable to accomplish anything of importance; but, learning that Gibraltar was very poorly garrisoned, he suddenly attacked and captured it, and hoisted the English flag on its Signal Station.

直布罗陀在1704年在西班牙王位继承战中落入英国人的手中,在这场战斗中,马尔伯勒为英军赢得了极大的荣誉。海军上将乔治·卢克爵士曾经被派往地中海,监视法国和西班牙的舰队。在很长一段时间内,他没有取得一件重大的成绩。不过,在知道直布罗陀守备松懈的消息后,他对直布罗陀发动了突然袭击,占领了它,并把英国的旗帜插在它的信号站。

That flag is the only one that has ever floated there since the 23rd of July 1704. Time after time have the Spaniards tried to recover this "key of the Mediterranean;" but every effort has been repulsed most gallantly, and often with tremendous loss to the enemy.

英国的这面旗帜是,自1704年7月23日以来唯一一面一直在这里高高飘扬的旗帜。西班牙一次次地试图重获这把“地中海的钥匙”,但是每一次努力都被勇敢的击退了,而且经常是损失极为惨重。

The last attempt they made was the most gigantic and determined of all; and its successful resistance by the English garrison forms one of the most heroic incidents in the annals of modern warfare. It occurred during the struggle which severed from England her North American colonies.③ France recognized the United States as an independent power in 1778, and a war with England was the consequence. In the following year Spain joined France, and Gibraltar was immediately blockaded.

西班牙最后一次的努力是最为巨大的一次,也是最具决定性的一次,而英国守军的成功抵抗也成了现代战争史上,最为英勇的事件之一。这场战役发生在英国在北美的殖民地反英斗志中极为残酷的时期。1778年,法国承认美国是一个独立的国家,随后便发生了与英国的战争。1779年,西班牙加入法国参战,直布罗陀也立刻被封锁了。

The siege which followed lasted three years. Every appliance which experience could suggest, or skill could devise, was brought into requisition. Never before had such tremendous armaments, by sea and by land, been brought against any fortress. Yet the garrison held out bravely; and twice their friends outside—once by Admiral Darby, and once by Rodney—succeeded in sending them reinforcements and supplies.

这场包围战持续了三年。经验当中可能用到的每一种器械,可能想到的每一种技能,都投入了应用。在大海上,陆地上,从来没有如此强大的军队用于进攻任何一座堡垒。然而,驻军们勇敢的把守着,外援的友军,两次成功的为他们送来了增援部队和补给品,一次是海军上将达比,一次是罗德里。

Early in 1781, there was a terrific bombardment of the place; but so effectual was the shelter afforded by the casemates,④ or bomb-proof vaults, that the garrison lost only seventy men. In November of the same year, General Elliot, who conducted the defence, headed a midnight sortie, which annihilated the entire line of the enemy's works. Their floating batteries were at the same time destroyed with red-hot balls. That one night cost the Spaniards two millions sterling!

1781年初,一场惊天动地的炮击战在这里打响了。尽管西班牙人的攻势极其猛烈,但是由于英国守军大炮的猛烈还击,防御工事也极为坚固,结果只有70名守军死亡。同年的11月,负责此次防御作战的艾洛特将军在一个午夜向敌军发起突然袭击,击溃了敌人整个的防御工事,同时,他们的海上移动炮台也被炽热的火球摧毁。一夜的激战让西班牙人付出了两百万英镑的代价!

But the final effort was made in 1782, when the Duke de Crillon, flushed with his success in capturing Minorca, took the command of the besiegers. He had under him upwards of 30,000 of the best troops of France and Spain, and his heavy guns amounted to the then unprecedented number of one hundred and seventy. The combined fleets numbered forty-seven sail of the line, with ten great floating batteries—the contrivance of a French engineer, and deemed invincible, —and frigates, gun-boats, mortar-boats and small craft without number. The besieged numbered only 7000 men with eighty guns.

尽管如此,到1782年,西班牙人还是做了最后一次努力。当时,德克里浪公爵成功占领米诺卡岛后,指挥了这场围攻战。它率领的大军由法国和西班牙最好的军队组成,共约3·3万人,装备大炮的数量也是前所未有的170门。法国与西班牙联合舰队舰艇的数量多达47艘,另外还有不计其数的护卫舰、大炮舰艇、迫击炮艇和小船。但是,英国的守军只有7000人,大炮只有80门。

The siege attracted the interest of the whole civilized world. Two French princes joined the besiegers' camp, to witness the fall of the place. "Is it taken?" was the first question asked each morning by the King of Spain. "Not yet; but it will be soon," said his courtiers: and still Elliot's guns thundered defiance from the Rock.

此次围攻引起了整个文明世界的关注。法国的两位王子前往围攻军队的营地,以见证直布罗陀的陷落。“占领了吗?”这是西班牙国王每天早上提出的第一个问题。“还没有,不过快了。”他的侍臣们回答,而艾洛特的大炮仍在猛烈的还击。

At length, on the morning of the 13th of September, the grand and decisive attack commenced. The ten battering-ships bore down in admirable order to their several stations. The Admiral, in a two-decker, moored about nine hundred yards off the King's Bastion.⑤ The other vessels took their places in a masterly manner, the most distant being eleven hundred or twelve hundred yards from the garrison. Under shelter of the walls, furnaces for heating shot had been lighted; and, from the instant the ships dropped into position, a continuous fire of red-hot balls was directed upon them by the garrison.

最后,在9月13日的上午,重大的、决定性的进攻开始了。10艘炮舰按照极好的顺序全力以赴开赴各自的位置。德克里朗将军站在距离国王堡垒900米的一艘双层甲板的战舰上,其他战舰一字排开,各就各位,距离英国守军防御工事最远的战舰只有1100米或者1200米。在墙壁的掩护下,为铁球加热的炉子一直在燃烧着,就在一瞬间,战舰被摧毁了,一个个炽热的球体从防御工事那里向他们发射过来。

In little more than ten minutes, continues Drinkwater, the enemy were completely moored, and their cannonade then became tremendous. The showers of shot and shell which were directed from their land-batteries and battering-ships, on the one hand, and, on the other, the incessant fire from the various works of the garrison, exhibited a scene of which neither the pen nor the pencil can furnish a competent idea. It is sufficient to say that upwards of four hundred pieces of the heaviest artillery were playing at the same moment—a power of ordnance which up till that time had scarcely been employed in any siege since the invention of those wonderful engines of destruction.

在十分钟的时间里,德瑞克沃特持续着,敌人被彻底地固定在他们的阵地上,接着他们发起了猛烈的炮击。敌人陆上的大炮和战列舰弹炮齐发,入雨点般的向防御工事里面的守军倾斜而下,另一方面,守军各个防御工事也万弹齐发,一时间整个战场猛烈的场面简直用笔墨难以形容。可以毫无疑问的说,在同一时间内,有多达400门的大炮在开火,自从发明了这种奇妙的破坏机器以来,这种情形在任何一次围攻战役中是从来都没有过的。

After some hours' cannonade, the battering-ships were found to be no less formidable than they had been represented. Our heaviest shells often rebounded from their tops, whilst the thirty-two pound shot seemed incapable of making any visible impression upon their hulls. Frequently we flattered ourselves that they were on fire; but no sooner did any smoke appear, than, with the most persevering intrepidity, men were observed applying water from their engines within, to those places whence the smoke issued.

在经过长达数小时的炮击后,敌人战列舰的强大正如它们被描述的那样展现了出来。我们最重的炮弹总是从这些战列舰的顶部弹起来,这些重达32磅的炮弹似乎不能不能在这些战列舰的船体上留下任何明显的痕迹。我们不断对自己说,敌人的战列舰着火了。可是,一旦有任何的烟火从那些战列舰上冒出来,顽固的敌人用舰上自带的消防设备向冒出烟火的地方喷水。

Though vexatiously annoyed from the isthmus,⑥ our artillery directed their sole attention to the battering-ships, the furious and spirited opposition of which served to excite our people to more animated exertions. A fire more tremendous, if possible, than ever, was therefore directed upon them from the garrison. Incessant showers of hot balls, carcasses,⑦ and shells of every species, flew from all quarters; yet, for some hours, the attack and defence were so equally maintained as scarcely to indicate any appearance of superiority on either side. The wonderful construction of the ships seemed to bid defiance to the powers of the heaviest ordnance.

尽管受到地峡的干扰,我们的大炮还是只把关注重点放在那些战列舰上。战列舰上敌人猛烈而又勇敢的反击反而激发了我们的豪情和斗志。因此,我们的守军向着这些战列舰发出了比以前更为猛烈的攻击。炽热的火球、炮弹从各个战斗岗位如雨点般的倾斜而下。然而,数个小时之后,进攻和防守相持不下,没有任何迹象表明哪一方占据了优势。那些建造极为精巧的战舰似乎承受住了最猛烈的炮火的袭击。

In the afternoon, however, the face of things began to change considerably. The smoke which had been observed to issue from the upper part of the flag-ship appeared to prevail, notwithstanding the constant application of water; and the Admiral's second was perceived to be in the same condition.

不过,到了下午,局面开始发生了重大变化。此前看到的。旗舰上冒出的烟看上去在向四处蔓延,即使不断用水浇也无济于事,而将军的第二艘战舰看上去也处于同样的状态。

As night came on, the flames fairly gained the ascendant. The confusion which reigned on board of these vessels soon communicated itself to the whole line. The fire of the battering-ships gradually slackened: that of the garrison, on the contrary, seemed to become more animated and tremendous.

夜幕降临,火势渐涨。这些舰上的混乱引起了整个战线的混乱。战舰的攻势越来越弱;相反,守军的攻势变得越来越有生气,越来越猛烈。

It was kept up during the entire night. At one in the morning, two of the ships were entirely a prey to the flames. It was not long before the others also caught fire, either from the operation of the red-hot balls, or, as the Spaniards afterwards alleged, because they set them on fire themselves, when they had lost all hope of saving them. It was then that trouble and despair broke out in all their violence. Every moment the Spaniards made signals of distress, and fired off rockets to implore assistance.

这种局面一直持续了整整一夜。凌晨一点,其中两艘战列舰完全被火焰吞没。然后不久,其他战列舰也着火了,要么是炽热的火球引起的,要么就是西班牙人后来所宣称的那样,在失去了挽救的希望后,他们自己把战舰点着了。直到这时候,猛烈反击的西班牙人这才感到陷入了危险和绝望的境地。每一瞬间,西班牙人都发出求救信号,并发射火箭寻求援助。

All their boats were immediately sent off, and surrounded the floating gun-ships, in order to save their crews—an operation executed with extreme intrepidity, in spite of perils of every sort. Not only was it necessary for the men to brave the artillery of the besieged: they had also to expose themselves to almost inevitable burning in approaching the flaming vessels. Never, perhaps, did a spectacle more horrible—more deplorable—present itself to the eyes of men. The profound darkness that covered the earth and the sea intensified, by contrast, the lurid flames; and the shrieks of the victims were distinctly heard by the garrison, in the intervals of their cannonade.

西班牙人马上出动所有的船只,围着漂浮的战列舰,营救战列舰上的人员——营救人员表现得非常勇敢,因为他们要冒着各种危险:除了被围攻的守军打过来的枪林弹雨外,在靠近燃烧的战列舰时,还将自己不可避免得暴露在烈火之中。对这些营救人员来说,他们也许从来没有看到如此惨烈、如此悲壮的场面。伸手不见五指的黑夜笼罩着陆地和海洋,这与那像恶魔一样吞噬着战舰的火焰形成了鲜明的对比。在向这些战列舰炮轰的间歇,守军们能够清楚的听到遇难者惨烈的尖叫和哭喊声。

A fresh incident arose to interrupt the succour carried to them, and to redouble the terror and confusion. Captain Curtis, a sailor as daring as he was skilful, suddenly advanced with his gun-boats, which had been constructed to confront those of the Spaniards, and each of which carried in front an eighteen or twenty-four pounder. Their fire at water-level rendered them exceedingly formidable; and they were disposed by Captain Curtis so as to take the line of floating batteries in flank.

就在这时,一个小插曲打断了营救人员的行动,使得局面显得更加恐怖和混乱。柯蒂斯船长,像水手一样勇敢又灵巧,突然驾着他那艘用于打击西班牙舰艇的炮舰向前冲去。这艘炮舰的前部装有一门发射18或24磅(约8或11千克)炮弹的重炮。这些炮弹从水面上发射出去,使得它们的威力显得更加势不可挡。在柯蒂斯船长的冲击下,营救人员被迫靠向漂浮战列舰的侧边。

From that moment the position of the Spaniards became terribly critical. The boats no longer dared to approach them, but were constrained to abandon those enormous machines, so lately the objects of their admiration, to the flames, and their companions in arms to the mercy of an enraged enemy. Several of them were seen to founder. Others only escaped by forced rowing. A few sought shelter by the land during the night; but, on the appearance of daylight, they were easily captured by the English.

从这一刻起,西班牙人的局势就变得非常危险了。船上的营救人员不敢再向战列舰靠近,而是被迫放弃这些庞然大物——尽管不久之前,他们还对这些战舰十分钦佩,任由火焰将其吞噬,任由被激怒的敌人宰割自己的同伴。在这些同伴中,有几个眼睁睁的看着被海水吞没;另外几个则拼命的划船,这才捡回了性命;有几个在夜里逃上了岸边,然后到了白天,他们却轻而易举地成了英国人的俘虏。

Then was witnessed, in all its horrors, a scene, the most harrowing features of which had hitherto remained concealed. In the midst of the flames appeared unhappy wretches, who, with lond shrieks, implored compassion, or precipitated themselves into the waves. Some, on the point of drowning, clung with weakened grasp to the sides of the burning vessels, or floated at hazard on fragments which they chanced to encounter, and, in the agony of desperation, convulsively implored the compassion of their victors.

接下来,人们看到了更加令人发指的场景。景象之惨烈,至今仍不很隐秘。在燃烧的火焰中间,那些不幸的人们,有的在大声尖叫,寻求着怜悯和同情;有的被卷入到了海浪之中;有的,在即将没入海水之时,伸出手指抓住燃烧着的船舰的边缘,有的人则抓住舰艇的碎片随波逐流,并在绝望的痛苦之中,抽搐着博得胜利者的同情。

Touched by this deplorable spectacle, the English listened to humanity alone, and ceased their fire, to occupy themselves solely with the rescue of their enemies; a proceeding the more generous on their part, as they thereby exposed themselves to the most imminent hazard. Captain Curtis, in particular, covered himself with glory, by prodigally risking his own life to save those of his fellow-creatures. Some of his own men were wounded in this honourable enterprise; others were killed; and he himself narrowly escaped from partaking the fate of a ship which blew up at the moment when he was about to board her. More than four hundred of the enemy's troops were rescued by this intrepid sailor from certain death!

英国人为所看到的这悲惨的景象所深深触动,他们听到了人性的呼唤,于是停止了开火,并投入到了营救敌人的行动当中。这对英国人来说是慷慨的行为,因为他们要冒着随时都可能丧失生命的危险。柯蒂斯船长更是舍生忘死,冒着生命的危险去救那些遇难的人。在这场崇高的行动中,他的一些人受伤了,还有人失去了生命,而他自己侥幸脱险,因为就要登上一艘船时,它爆炸了。这些勇敢的海员一共营救了400多位敌军战士,把他们从死亡线中拉了回来。

The greater number of the famous battering-ships were either blown up or burnt. The Spanish Admiral quitted his flag-ship a little before midnight, as did also D'Arcon, the French engineer, that on board of which he had embarked to witness the triumph of his contrivances.

西班牙这些著名的战舰的大部分有的炸毁了,有的被火烧了。在大约午夜之前,西班牙舰队司令弃掉旗舰而逃,在战舰上想要见证自己发明成功的法国设计师德·阿尔康也随之而逃。

Meanwhile, the most intense anxiety as to the fate of Gibraltar prevailed in England. Admiral Howe had sailed from Portsmouth with a convoy containing fresh troops and provisions, and a fleet of thirty-four sail of the line. Relieved by the news of Elliot's brilliant victory, which he received off the coast of Portugal, he steered direct for the Straits, and succeeded in bringing the whole of his transports to their destination, even in presence of the enemy's fleets. Thus Gibraltar was saved, and the continuance of the blockade till the peace (Jan. 20, 1783) was little more than a form.

于此同时,在英国的人们都非常担心直布罗陀的命运。海军上将豪率领一支由34艘舰船组成的舰队,载着支援部队和补给品从朴茨茅斯急忙向直布罗陀驶来。在葡萄牙海岸,他收到了艾略特取得辉煌胜利的消息,这才长舒了一口气,放心了。豪将军率领舰队径直向驶向直布罗陀海峡,就在敌方舰队的眼皮底下成功地将整个援军和补给品运送到了目的地。就这样直布罗陀守住了,而对直布罗陀的封锁持续到1783年双方达成和平协议为止。

QUESTIONS

问题

When and how did Gibraltar fall into the hands of the English? When did the Spaniards make the most determined effort to recover it? How long did the siege last? How often during that time was the garrison succoured? What was done in 1781? When was the final effort made? Who took the command of the besiegers? How many men had he? To what did the combined fleets amount? What was the strength of the garrison in men and in guns? What is the date of the decisive attack? Upon what had the besiegers placed most reliance? What proved the great strength of these ships? How were they at length destroyed? What movement compelled the Spaniards to abandon them? What humane service did Curtis afterwards render? Who brought fresh troops and provisions from England to the garrison? When did the blockade finally terminate?    

直布罗陀在什么时候以及如何落入英国的手里?西班牙人何时做出最坚决的努力去夺回它?这场包围战持续了多久?在此期间守军的救援品多长时间一次?在1781年发生了什么?最后一次的努力是何时?谁担任这场包围战的指挥?他率领的军队有多少战士参战? 联合舰队舰船的数量达到多少?守军在人数上和枪炮是什么样的力量?决定性的进攻的日期是哪天?进攻者对什么最为依赖?这些船舰的巨大的威力是什么?最后它们是如何被摧毁的?社么行动迫使西班牙人放弃了这些?后来柯蒂斯船长实施了什么样的人道营救?谁从英格兰把援军和补给品送到守卫军?何时最终结束了对直布罗陀的封锁?

译文属小E英语原创,未经允许,不得转载。

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