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英国语文BOOK 6 LESSON 10 Damascus and London(II) 大马士革与伦敦(二)(中英对照+mp3)

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LESSON 10 Damascus and London(II)

第十课 大马士革与伦敦(二)

Our cities are filled and ornamented with hotels, coffee-houses, hospitals, work-houses, prisons, and similar conspicuous buildings. Generally speaking, there are none of these in the East. Hospitals and institutions for the sick and the poor were the offspring of Christianity, and are, I am inclined to think, peculiar to Christian lands.

我们的城市到处都是宾馆、咖啡屋、医院、工厂、监狱,点缀着类似的引人注目的建筑。一般来说,在东方的城市,没有这些设施。医院以及为病人和穷人设立的公共机构都是基督教的产物,因此我想,这些医院和公共机构是基督教国家独有的。

There are few prisons in the East, and these are very wretched. Imprisonment as a punishment is little practised, and is altogether unsuited to the Mohammedan law and mode of thinking. Life is not so sacred as with us. It is urged that if a man deserves to be confined as a dangerous member of society, he deserves to die; society will never miss him, and some expense will be spared: "Off with his head;①—so much for Buckingham."

在东方,很少有监狱,而少有的这些监狱的情况也很糟糕。人们很少用监禁作为对一个人所犯罪行的一种惩罚,但这种惩罚方式不适用于伊斯兰教律法和思维模式。我们认为生命是神圣的,但是东方人并不这么认为。如果一个人被认定是社会上的一个危险分子,人们敦促着,他就应当去死。社会永远都不会想念他,而且还会节省一些费用。”砍掉他的脑袋,——白金汉落得就是这样的下场。“

Hence in Damascus, and in the East generally, people are not liable to the reproach which is sometimes brought against us—that the best house in the county is the jail. Besides, in the East, punishment follows crime instantaneously. The judge, the mufti,② the prisoner, and the executioner, are all in the court at the same time. As soon as the sentence is delivered, the back is made bare, the donkey is ready (for perjury, in Damascus, the man rides through the city with his face to the tail), or the head falls, according to the crime, in the presence of all the people. Awful severity, and the rapidity of lightning, are the principles of their laws; nor do they deem it necessary to make the exact and minute distinctions of crime that we do. The object is to prevent crime, and this is most effectually done by the principle of terror and the certainty of immediate punishment.

因此,在大马士革和广义上的东方,人们不太可能去指责说,这个国家最好的房屋是监狱,相反,这种情况有时反过来来用于指责我们。除此之外,在东方,犯罪立刻就会受到惩罚。法官、法学家、罪犯和行刑者都在公堂上。判决一公布,罪犯就会赤裸着背,而驴子也会提前准备好(驴子是用来惩罚做伪证的人。在大马士革,作伪证的人要倒骑着驴子游街);或者根据罪行,当着众人的面把罪犯的脑袋砍掉。严酷和神速是他们的法律的原则,而且他们还认为没有必要像我们这样对犯罪做出准确而又细微的区分。目的同样是预防犯罪,而这个目的是通过恐怖和确定的即时惩罚的原则来实现的,而且也是最有效的。

A certain baker in Constantinople used false weights in selling his bread: the Sultan ordered him to be roasted alive in his own oven, and afterwards boasted that this one act of severity had effectually prevented all similar crimes. Here you see the principle of government in the East;—it is nothing but terror and religious fanaticism.

在君士坦丁堡,有一个面包师在卖面包时短斤少两。于是,苏丹就下令把他放在他自己的烤炉力活烤。据说,此后,这一严酷的法律有效的阻止了类似犯罪的发生。通过这个例子,你就可以明白东方政府的原则:恐怖和宗教狂热。

As to coffee-houses, there are plenty of them in Damascus; but they can hardly be called houses, much less palaces: they are open courts with fountains of water, sheltered from the sun; and in many cases they have little stools, some six inches high, on which, if you do not prefer the ground, you can rest while you enjoy your sherbet, coffee, and tobacco. Pipes, nargilies,③ ices, eau sucre,④ sherbet, and fruits of all kinds, are in abundance, and of the lowest possible price.

至于说咖啡屋,在大马士革倒是有很多。不过,这些咖啡屋几乎不能说上是屋子,更不用说是咖啡馆了。这里的咖啡屋就是开阔的院子,院子里面有喷泉,上面有遮阳的棚子;在大多数情况下,院子里摆放着小凳子,六英尺高,当然这总比坐在地上要好一些;坐在凳子上,你可以享用冰冻果汁,品味咖啡和香烟。烟管、水烟筒、冰冻食品、软水、冰冻果汁和各种水果敞开供应,而且也很便宜。

These cafés are very quiet: there is no excitement, no reading of newspapers, no discussion of politics and religion; no fiery demagogue or popular orator to mislead the people; no Attic⑤ wit provokes a smile, and no bold repartee calls forth applauding laughter on the other side. But yet they have their own amusements, and they play earnestly at games both of chance and of skill. The traveller tells his escapes and dangers to an admiring little circle; the story-teller repeats one of the "Thousand and One Nights"⑥ to a wondering audience; and if memory fails, the imagination, fertile as an oriental spring, supplies its boundless stores.

咖啡馆非常安静。在这里,没有喧闹声,没有读报声,没有谈论政治和宗教的声音;没有情绪激动的政治煽动家和误导民众的公众演说家;没有引人发笑、文雅的俏皮话,没有令人拍掌大笑,巧妙的应答。不过,这里的人们倒也会自娱自乐,认真的玩着赌博和技巧游戏:一个游客讲述着自己逃生和冒险的经历,一群好奇的人围着他钦佩的听着;说书人向听得津津有味的听众绘声绘色的讲着[一千零一夜]的故事;如果一时想不起来接下来的故事,想象就会像东方的喷泉一样,源源不断地提供着讲述的素材。

We have in the East great khans,⑦ but they bear little relation to our hotels. Ring, eat, and pay, is not the law in the East. They have no bells in Damascus, nor even the silver call or whistle which our grandmothers used in England. Bells in churches and in houses are alike an abomination to the Moslems; and the Maronites⑧ alone, by permission of the Government, have a right to use them.

在伦敦东部,我们有阿拉伯特色的可汗客店,不过这些客店与我们的宾馆几乎没有什么联系。按铃铛召唤、就餐、付款,所有的这些都不是中央东部的方式。在大马士革,他们没有铃铛,甚至没有在英国我们的祖母使用的哨子。对穆斯林来说,在清真寺和家里使用铃铛是一个令人憎恶的事情。只有马龙教徒,在得到政府许可的情况下,才有权力使用。

The Khan in Damascus is a large circular building surmounted by a noble dome, in which the great merchants have their goods and wares of all kinds; and in which the traveller can find a resting-place for himself and his camels, and be supplied with water from the central fountain;—but there are no tables spread for the travellers, and no beds ready made for the weary pilgrims: you must find your dinner as you best can, make your own bed, and when you rise, take it up, and walk. The Khan is, however, a very noble building, and excites not a little astonishment among the Orientals.

在大马士革,可汗客店是一种高大的圆形建筑,上面坐落着庄严、气势恢宏的圆屋顶。富商们把各种各样的商品和货物存放在这里,游客们和他们的骆驼则在这里歇息,并从中央温泉里取水饮用。不过,这里不为旅客们准备桌子,也不为身体疲惫的朝圣者准备床铺;你必须尽自己的最大努力去弄得吃的,自己准备床铺,而且在起床之后你还要自己收拾,然后在离开。不过,可汗客店是一种非常庄严、非常神圣的建筑,在东方人的眼中是一个令人叹为观止的奇观。

In European cities your attention is arrested by bookshops, pictures, placards, caricatures, &c.; now in Damascus we have nothing of the sort. Among the Jews you may find a few miserable stalls, from which you may pick up a copy of the Talmud,⑨ or some old rabbinical prayer-book.(10) The sheikh⑪ who sold me the Koran, ⑫ laid his hand upon his neck, and told me to be silent, for were it known that he had done so, he might lose his head. In the schools they are taught only to read the Koran, and to master the simplest elements of arithmetic and writing.

在欧洲的城市里,吸引你的注意力的是书店、图画、广告牌和漫画等。可是,在大马士革,你是看不到这些的。在犹太人当中,你可能会看到一些不屑一顾的货摊。在这些货摊上,你可能会看到一部犹太法典,或者几本陈旧的希伯来语祈祷书。一位伊斯兰教教长把一本《古兰经》卖给我,他把手放在自己的脖子上,告诉我不要告诉别人,因为如果这件事让人知道,他可能就得掉脑袋。在学校,他们只教学生学习《古兰经》和最简单的算术和写字。

Men of letters there are at present none, and the highest of their sciences is the knowledge of grammar. When I lived in Damascus, some wit (the first thing of the kind known) uttered a pun or squib reflecting on the corpulency of the pasha, and he was banished for it! The old observation of the caliph, as he fired the Alexandrian library, ⑬ holds true in the East still—"If the books agree with the Koran, they are useless; if they oppose it, they are pernicious; and in both cases they are unnecessary."

在大马士革,目前还没有作家,而他们最高级的学识也只是语法知识。我在大马士革居住的时候,在谈到某个官员肥胖时,一些说话风趣的人就用双关语或者幽默来表达,而他们却因此被流放!过去的哈里发在放火焚烧亚历山大图书馆时就发表过这样的言论:如果书本与《古兰经》的见解一致,那么书本就没有什么用处;如果不一致,书本就是邪恶的;无论如何,书本都是没有必要的。他的这种观念至今还被认为是真理!

"But has not Damascus one hundred thousand inhabitants?" says the traveller. "Where are their newspapers, spreading light and knowledge through a portion of the sixty millions who use the noble Arabic language? Take me to the office of some Oriental Sun, Times, Globe, or Morning Chronicle"

“可是,大马士革不是有十多万的居民吗?“游客问道,”他们的报纸在哪里呢,就是那些通过六千万份中一部分使用尊贵的阿拉伯语传播光明和知识的报纸?请到我到《东方太阳报》、《时报》、《环球报》、或者《晨报》的办公室去看看。“

There is no such thing. Even in Constantinople there is only one newspaper, and the one half of it is in Turkish, and the other in French! Tyranny and superstition, like two monstrous mill-stones, rest upon and compress the energies of the oriental nations; even Greece, the fountain of science and literary and mental activity, was for a time blotted from the rank of nations, and the inquisitive character of its people all but annihilated by the stern rule of the Turks. ⑭……

没有这类的东西。即使在君士坦丁堡,也只有一家报纸,而且其中的一半是土耳其语,另一半是法语!专制和迷信,就像两座大山一样压抑和压制着东方国家的活力和精神;即使在希腊,科学、文学和智力活动的源泉也曾经沾染上了这些国家的这些污点,其民众好奇的性格也几乎被土耳其严酷的统治扼杀了······

But there is another great difference between the general appearance of London and of Damascus, namely, in the eastern city you see not the bright, joyous countenance of woman—she is deeply veiled. In Egypt she is enveloped from head to foot in a dark, and in Syria in a white sheet, which effectually obliterates all traces of shape, absolutely equalizes to the eye all ranks, ages, and conditions, and suggests to the beholder the idea of a company of ghosts……

此外,从整体上看,伦敦和大马士革还有一个很大的不同之处,那就是,在东方城市,你看不到女人那幸福、欢快的面容——她们的面容被深深地埋藏在面纱里。在埃及,她们从头到脚都用黑色的衣服包裹着,而在叙利亚则用白色的布料包裹着,遮盖了她们的体型,使得她们看起来都一样,看不出她们的身份、年龄和社会地位,给人一种一群幽灵的感觉······

Conceive now how ludicrous the streets of London would appear, if green, white, black, and gray turbans moved indiscriminately, instead of the present hats; and if all the ladies, walking or on donkeys, instead of the present varieties of showy dress, beautiful bonnets, and smiling faces, presented only the appearance of headless ghosts clothed in white!

想想吧,在伦敦的街道上,如果所有的女士都头戴绿色、白色、黑色和灰色头巾四处游走,而不像现在这样戴着各种各样的帽子;如果所有的女士都步行或者骑着驴子,而不像现在这样身着各种艳丽的服装,戴着各种漂亮的帽子,露出灿烂的笑容,而只是像用白布包裹的无头鬼一样,那将会是多么的滑稽可笑啊!

As to the general motion and life, the difference is immense between Damascus and a western city. Let us glance for a moment at two streets, and compare them: —

从整体上看,大马士革与西方城市在城市运作和生活方面存在着巨大的差异。还是让我们看一下两个城市的街道,然后再加以比较吧:

1. In Damascus there is more openness and publicity. The tradesmen of every kind work in the open bazaars; many of the merchants and artisans dine in public—that is, eat their bread and oil, bread and honey, or bread and grapes, in the street where they work. All are smoking, without exception, in the intervals of business. Some are engaged in reading the Koran, swinging their bodies to and fro in the most earnest and violent manner. Some are sleeping calmly, with the long pipe in their mouth! There a butcher is killing a sheep, surrounded by a circle of hungry, expectant dogs. Yonder is a company engaged at a game of skill. Everything is done in the open air, and nothing seems to be concealed but the ladies.

1.大马士革更公开,更具公共性。各行各业的手工艺人在公开的集市上工作;许多商人和工匠在公开的场合吃饭——也就是说,他们在自己工作的大街上吃面包和佐餐食油、面包和蜂蜜、或者面包和葡萄。在从事商业活动的间歇,所有的人都抽烟,无一例外。他们有的读着《古兰经》,身体前后摇晃着,一幅极其严肃和暴力的样子;有的在安静的睡觉,嘴里叼着长长的烟管!一个屠夫在屠宰一只羊,身边围着一圈饥饿而又充满期待的饿狗。远处,一群人一起玩着技巧的游戏。一切都在光天化日之下进行,似乎没有什么可隐藏的东西,当然女士除外。

2. In the eastern city there is much more quiet. Their manners are sober, formal, and stately; arising partly, I believe, from the famous and universal dogma of obedience. There is, indeed, hardly any other law. The subject, the wife, the son, the slave obeys: to hear is to obey. This principle of unhesitating, unquestioning obedience leads to quiet. There is no contradiction. There is nothing to talk about. There is nothing like politics. There is no public opinion, of course; for that is based upon private opinion, and determined, resolute will. This extraordinary quiet and solemnity of demeanour may arise partly, also, from a sense of danger. Every man has arms, and has the right both of wearing and of using them: and no man makes a journey, be it only to a neighbouring village, without sword and pistols. Now this tends to quiet, earnest, solemn manners. If a scuffle takes place, it is not a black eye or a bloody face that is the result, but the certain death of some of the parties; and hence they are taught the principle of self-restraint and moral control……

2.东方城市要安静得多。他们的举止显得冷静、正式而又严肃。我想,其中一部分的原因源自于闻名的和通用的顺从教义。事实上,这里几乎没有任何其他的法律。妻子、儿子和奴隶遵守的法律是:听从就是遵守。安静是无条件绝对服从原则的结果。没有抵触,没有什么可以探讨的,没有像政治这样的东西。当然,也没有公共舆论,因为舆论是建立在个人见解、坚定和坚决的意志的基础之上的。这种在行为上非同寻常的安静和严肃的另一个原因可能源自于人人自危的感觉。每个人都拥有武器,而且有权携带和使用武器:一个人只要外出,即使是到邻村,也要携带一把长剑或者手枪。这种情况使得人们倾向于安静、庄重和严肃的神态和举止。一旦发生混战,其结果将不是黒眼窝,也不是鼻青脸肿,而是双方当中的一方的死亡;因此,他们必须把握自制和道德控制的原则······

3. The Arabs, and Orientals in general, sit much more than we do. The tradesmen all sit at their work: the smith, the carpenter, and the merchant, the butcher, the joiner, and the spice-monger, sit quietly and transact their business. They sit as tailors do, cross-legged, but with their feet doubled in beneath them. They sit on their feet, and maintain that such is the most natural and easy position! They seem to have no pleasure in motion: no man goes out to take a walk; no man moves for the sake of exercise. They go out, as they say, to smell the air, by some spreading tree or fountain of water. And yet they are capable of enduring great and long-continued labour. Abu Mausur travelled with us nearly forty days, during which we rode at the rate of from six to eighteen hours a day; and yet, though never upon a horse, he was always with us at the requisite time and place. He performed the journey on foot, and was rarely far behind.

3.在通常情况下,阿拉伯人和东方人坐下来的时间要比我们坐下来的时间要多。手工艺人都坐着工作:铁匠、木匠、商人、屠夫、工匠和香料贩子都安静的坐着,做着他们的生意。他们像裁缝一样盘腿而坐,不过他们的双脚都放在腿的下面。就这样,他们盘坐在脚上,一直保持着这种最自然、也最悠闲的姿势!他们似乎不能享受运动的乐趣:没有人散步,没有人为了锻炼而运动。正如他们所说的那样,他们到枝繁叶茂的树旁或者泉水旁边去,那是为了呼吸空气。不过,他们能忍受繁重而又长时间的劳作。阿卜·摩苏尔和我们一起旅行了近40天,我们每天都要骑马行走6到18个小时,尽管他从来都没有骑马,可是在需要的时候,他总是和我们在一起。他一路步行,可是从来都没有落在我们的后面。

Take, then, these things together, and you will easily perceive that in the city of Damascus everything is still and calm as the unclouded sky and the balmy air. The hoof of the camel falls noiselessly on the unpaved street; the sheep-skin foot-gloves of the Damascenes make no sound; and all the movements, both of men and of animals, are slow and solemn.

把所有的这些都考虑在内,你就很容易理解,在大马士革这座城市,一切都是静止的,平静的,就像晴朗的天空和暖和的空气一样。骆驼的蹄子轻轻地落在没有砖石铺砌的街道上,大马士革人羊皮制作的靴子没有声响,所有的动作,无论是人还是动物,都是迟缓而又庄重的。

—Rev. Dr. Graham

——雷夫·dr·格拉汉姆

QUESTIONS

问题

Of what public buildings are eastern cities generally destitute? Why are there few prisons in the East? What is the object of their penal system? How do they attain it? Describe the appearance of a Damascus coffeehouse. What is a khan? What are the children taught in the schools? How is the absence of newspapers to be explained? How do women go about in Damascus? In comparing two streets, one in London, the other in Damascus, what three points of difference would be most noticeable?

东方的城市一般都没有什么公共建筑物? 在东方为什么很少有监狱?他们刑罚制度的对象是什么? 他们是如何来实施刑罚的?描述一下大马士革咖啡屋的样子。什么是可汗客店? 孩子们在学校里学习什么?对于大马士革没有报纸,该如何解释呢?在大马士革女士们如何四处走动呢?对比伦敦和大马士革两个城市的街道,最明显的三个区别是什么?

译文属小E英语原创,未经允许,不得转载。

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