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躺着就能学英语语法Chapter1-5:名词与量词(MP3)

della1 于2013-07-11发布 l 已有人浏览
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躺着就能学英语语法Chapter1-5讲的是名词与量词,附有Mp3和文本。
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躺着就能学英语语法Chapter1-5:名词与量词

量词是用来表示不可数名词的数量,即不可数名词的个体性。量词也可以和可数名词连用,表示“一双”“一群”等意义。

1.最常用搭配强的量词是:piece(条、块、件), bit  (点), article(件)
例子:a piece of advice一个忠告
a piece of news一则新闻
a bit of advice一点建议
a piece of information一条消息
a piece of cake一块蛋糕
an article of furniture一件家具

2.表示形状的量词:ball(团),bar(条),block(块)
  (条),sheet(片、张),slice(片)。
例子:a ball of string一圈线a bar of chocolate一条巧克力
      a block of ice一块冰a loaf of bread一条面包
      a sheet of glass一片玻璃a slice of meat一片肉

3.表示容积、容量的量词:bag(袋),basket(篮子),bottle瓶,cup(杯)。
例子:a bag of flour一袋面粉
a bottle of milk一瓶牛奶
a cup of coffee一杯咖啡
a basket of fruit一篮水果
a box of sugar一盒糖
a glass of beer一杯啤酒

4.表示成双成对的量词:pair(双、对、副)。
例子:a pair of glasses一副眼镜a pair of shoes一双鞋
      a pair of gloves一副手套a pair of scissors一把剪刀

5.表示人的量词:group(群), crowd(人群)。
例子:a group of people一群人
a crowd of people一群人

容易犯错的句子:
1.他的衣服旧了。
错:His clothes is old.
对:His clothes are old.
clothes泛指衣服,只有复数形式,且不能与具体数词连用,如不能说five clothes, two clothes但可以说some clothes, a few clothes. clothes作主语时.be动词用复数形式。“一套衣服”应说a suit of clothes。

2.他们是德国人还是英国人?
错:Are they Germen or Englishmen?
错:Are they Germans or Englishmans?
对:Are they Germans or Englishmen?
“德国人”German的复数形式是Germans,而不是Germen;而“英国人”Englishman是Englis畸口man构成的复合名词,复数形式只需将man变成men即可,不应在词尾加一s,所以英国人Englishman的复数形式是Englishmen。表示“某国人”的名词,常用的单复数形式如下:

3.请给我一张纸。
错:Please give me a paper.
对:Please give me a piece of paper.
对:Please give me a sheet of paper.
paper在这里是物质名词,不可数,因此“一张纸”不应说a paper,而应piece/sheet of paper ;“两张纸”是:two pieces of paper。但作“报“证书”“考卷”等解释时.是可数名词.有复数形式。

4.那个农场有多少只绵羊?
错:How many sheeps are there on that farm?
对:How many sheep are there on that farm?
sheep的单复数形式相同.复数不应加一s。

5.他们通常在晚上做作业。
错:They usually do their homeworks in the evening.
对:They usually do their homework in the evening.
homework一般用作不可数名词.没有复数形式。

6.我有一个好消息要告诉你。
错:I have a good news to tell you.
对:I have good news to tell you.
news是不可数名词,表示“一条消息”应说a piece of news,或good news,而不说a news;“几条消息”应说some pieces of news或some news 。

7.我来这儿已有两年半了。
错:I've been here for two and half a year.
对:I've been here for two and a half years.
对:I've been here for two years and a half.
表示“半年”应说:a half year,“半个月”为half a month,“半小时”为half an hour,“一个(或几个)半”要用‘l..·+名词+an a half”或“…+and a half+名词(复数)”。
two and a half years(或two years and a half)两年半
three and a half weeks(或three weeks and a half)三周半
five and a half days(或five days and a half)五天半
one and a half years(或one/a year and a half)一年半

8.一这(条)裤子是谁的?一是我的。
错:Whose trousers is this?一It's mine.
对:Whose trousers are these?一They're mine.
trousers是复数名词,没有单数形式,其相应的动词也要用复数。又如:My trousers are longer than  his.(我的裤子比他的长)。表示“一条裤子,,应说a pair of trousers,不说a trousers。

9.屋里有很多人。
错:There are many peoples in the house.
错:There are many persons in the house.
对:There are many people in the house.
people是集合名词,本身作复数用。表示“一个人”只能用a person,“两个人”可以说”two persons","two people"o注意:people通常表示很多人或不精确人数。如:2000 people ( 2000人),a lot of people(许多人),some people一些人)。但有时也可以用于指少数人或精确说明人数的场合,这时可与person互换使用,person一般只用于指少数的人或精确说明人数的场合。如“两个人,,既可说two people也可以谢wo persons,但2000人一般不说2000 persons o people作民族讲时是可数名词,表示“一个民族”a people,复数形式是peoples。

10.数学是一门很难的学科。
错:Maths are a very difficult subject.
对:Math is a very difficult subject.
maths是指一门“数学学科”(英式用法:美式则为math).尽管以一s结尾,但不是复数名词,所以应用作单数,其相应的动词也用单数。类似的有 physics(物理),politics(政治)均为单数。

11.这是一项艰苦的工作。
错:It's a hard work.
对:It's hard work.
work作“工作”讲时.是不可数名词.不能与不定冠词a连用。

12.今天的天气真好啊!
错:What a fine weather it is today!
对:What fine weather it is today!
对:What a fine day it is today!
对:How fine the weather is today!
weather是不可数名词,前面不能与不定冠词a连用,但习惯上可与定冠词the连用。day是可数名词.前面可与不定冠词a连用。

13.“两条鱼”应说:two fish还是two fishes?
表示“两条鱼”应说twofish;twofishes的意思是“两种鱼”。当用作可数名词时,表示鱼的数量,其复数一般为fish;表示鱼的种类时,其复数是fishes。当fish作食用的鱼讲时,是不可数名词,没有复数形式。如:
He had rice, meat, and fish for lunch.
他午饭吃的是米饭、肉和鱼。

14.她们是女老师。
错:They're woman teachers.
对:They're women teachers.
一般情况下,复合名词的复数形式是只变后面的主体名词,如banana trees(香蕉树),boy friends(男朋友),girl students(女学生)。但含有man, woman的复合名词两者都应变为复数形式,如men doctors(男医生),women teachers(女老师)。

15.“做足够的运动”是do enough exercise ,“做眼部运动”是do eye exercises,什么时候作不可数名词,什么时候作可数名词?
“做足够的运动”是do enough exercise,这里exercise泛指“运动、锻炼”,是不可数名词。“做眼部运动”是do eye exercises,这里exercises指具体的运动与锻炼项目,是可数名词。另外,exercise作“练习、习题”解时也是可数名词。
例子:I have a lot of exercises to do.我有许多习题要做。

16.该上课了。
错:It's time for the class.
对:It's time for class.
当class作抽象意义的“课”“上课”讲时.其前不用冠词。又如:be late after class(下课后),go to class(去上课) for class(上课迟到).

17.三班是获胜者。
错:Class 3 was the winners.
对:Class 3 were the winners.
class在这里是集合名词,指“三班的运动员”,作主语时,Be动词用复数形式。在英语中,class, family, team等集合名词作主语,当做一个整体看待时,Be动词用单数形式,指其中的各个成员时,Be动词用复数形式。试比较:
My family is a large one.
我家是个大家庭。
My family are having supper.
我们一家人正在吃晚饭。
Class 3 is a good class.
三班是个好班级。
Class 3 are having an English lesson.
三班的学生正在上英语课。

18.以-o结尾的名词复数加一s还是加一es ?
以o结尾的名词复数多数都可加一es。如:
tomato-tomatoes(蕃茄)potato-potatoes(马铃薯)
某些外来词词尾加一s。如:
photo-photos(照片)kilo-kilos(公斤)
词尾为两个元音字母的词加一s。如:
zoo-zoos(动物园)radio-radios(收音机)

19.他们有多少只鸡?
错:How many chicken do they have?
对:How many chickens do thay have?
chicken在这里作为家禽的鸡时,是可数名词,复数形式是chickens,作为食品的鸡肉时,是不可数名词,没有复数形式。
I like chicken very much.
我非常喜欢吃鸡肉。
20.“一杯水”和“一杯茶”应该怎样说?
英美人喜欢用玻璃杯喝水,用瓷杯喝茶,所以“一杯水”习惯说:a glass of
water 一杯茶,,习惯说:a cup of tea。不可以说a cup of water威a glass of tea

21.请给我一瓶柳橙汁。
错:Please give me a bottle orange juice.
错:Please give me a bottle of oranges juice.
对:Please give me a bottle of orange juice.
当orange juice作“柳橙汁”时是不可数名词,没有复数形式,表示“一瓶柳橙汁”应说a bottle of orange juice。不可数名词需要计数时,前面需加表示单位的量词。如:
a piece of paper一张纸a glass of milk一杯牛奶
a bag of rice一袋米two cups of tea两杯茶

22.今天是九月十日,教师节。
错:Today is September 10th, Teachers' Day.
对:Today is September 10th, Teacher's Day.
表示人或有生命的东西的名词,其所有格加“'s ",所以“教师节”应为
Teacher's day。若复数名词不是以一s结尾的,仍需加一’s。如:Children's
Day(儿童节)Women's Day(妇女节)。

23.请你告诉我去公园的路好吗?
错:Can you tell me the road to the park?
对:Can you tell me the way to the park?
way是指为了到达指定地点必须经过的地方,可以是街道、森林、田野、沙漠等。指抽象意义的“方向”“途中”只能用way,不能用road, road指两个地方中间能通车的大道。

24. What's the date today?和What day is (it) today?分别是什么意思?What's the date today?是问日期,意思是“今天是几号?”回答为Today is May 1st.(今天是5月1日。)What day is (it) today?是问星期几,意思是
“今天是星期几?”回答是:It's Monday.(星期一)

25.我去过纽约很多次。
错:I have been to New York many time.
对:I have been to New York many times.
time作“时间”解时是不可数名词,但作“次数”解时是可数名词,所以,“很多次”应为many times或a lot of times.“两次”要用twice,不说two times。

 

 

 

 

 

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