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躺着就能学英语语法Chapter7-7:表示工具、手段的介词(MP3)

della1 于2013-07-15发布 l 已有人浏览
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躺着就能学英语语法Chapte7-7讲的是表示工具、手段的介词,附有Mp3和文本。
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躺着就能学英语语法Chapter7-7:表示工具、手段的介词

by表示乘坐、驾驶交通工具with“用”某工具或身体的某部位in“用”某种语言或方式、手段

1.by表示“乘”(交通工具)。
例子:
He usually goes to work by bus.
他通常搭公车上班。
She goes to school by bike.
她骑自行车上学。
2. with表示“用”,主要指用某一具体工具或身体的某一部位。
例子:He caught the ball with his left hand.
          他用左手接住了球。
      I cut my hand with a knife this morning.
          今天上午我用小刀把手弄伤了。
3. in表示“用”,主要是指用某一种语言;或是表示方式、手段,用某种写或画的材料。
例子:
Don't speak in Russian.
不要用俄语说。
She wrote a letter in black ink
她用墨水写了一封信。
Don't write it in pencil.
不要用铅笔写。
She is in red.
她穿着红衣服。

注意.
用by来表示搭乘交通工具方式、手段时,名词前不加冠词。
by train乘火车
by car乘坐汽车
by plane搭飞机
用with表示方法、手段时,后面的名词要加定冠词或代词。
with one's ear用耳朵
with a knife用小刀
用in表示方法、手段时,后面的名词前不加冠词。
in ink用墨水
in English用英语
in black穿黑衣服

容易犯错的句子:
1.今天的报上有什么消息?
错:Is there any news on today's newspaper?
对:Is there any news in today's newspaper?
“在报上”英语习惯说in the newspaper。但“在纸上”习惯用on 。例如:Please write them down on this piece of paper.请把它们写在这张纸上。

2.这个星期天上午你打算做什么?
错:What are you going to do on this Sunday morning?
对:What are you going to do this Sunday morning?
表示时间的名词作副词时,如果名词前有this, that, next, last等词,不再用介系词。

3.你帮我买一张明天的票好吗?
错:Will you get me a ticket of tomorrow?
对:Will you get me a ticket for tomorrow?
表示“什么时间的票”.英语习惯说“a ticket for”而不用a ticket of o

4.我出生在1981年2月18日。
错:I was born on 1981,February 18th.
对:I was born on February 18th, 1981.
英语中出现年、月、日时,年份放在后面,前面用逗号分开。表示在某年某月某日或在某月某日时,用on。若表示在某年或者在某年某月,则用in。
He was born in 1982.
他在1982年出生。
He came to Taiwan in May, 1982.
他在1982年5月来台湾。

5.不要为我担心。
错:Don't worry me.
对:Don't worry about me.
worry表示“为某人或某事担心”时是不及物动词,须与介词about连用。

6.你能用英语回答这个问题吗?
错:Can you answer this question with English?
对:Can you answer this question in English?
with作“用”解时,一般指用具体工具。如果表示用某种语言或某种写或画的材料,则用介词in。试比较:
Don' t speak in Chinese.
不要用中文说。
Don't write with a pencil.
不要用铅笔写。

7.他在思考一道数学题。
错:He is thinking a math problem.
对:He is thinking about a math problem.
表示“思考、思索”.英语中应用think about。

8.他搭上了公车。
错:He got in a bus.
对:He got on a bus.
表示“上公车”动作,习惯上用get on。

9.夏天我经常去河里游泳。
错:I often go swimming on the river in summer.
对:I often go swimming in the river in summer.
在江、河、湖、海里游泳常用介词in;表示船只驶于水面上可用介词ono

10.老师对我们要求很严格。
错:The teacher is very strict in us.
对:The teacher is very strict with us.
表示“对某人要求严格”,英语习惯用be strict with sb.;表示“对某事严格要求”用be strict in。如:
We must be strict in our work.
我们必须对我们的工作严格要求。

11.墙上有个洞。
错:There is a hole on the wall.
对:There is a hole in the wall.
误句中“在墙上”译为on the wall 其实“洞”是在墙里的.该用in the wall, on the wall表示“在墙的上面”
There is a picture on the wall.
墙上有幅画。

12.有人在敲门。
错:Someone is knocking the door.
对:Someone is knocking at the door.
对:Someone is knocking on the door.
knock是不及物动词,“敲门”应说knock at the doo威knock on the door。当knock用作名词时,后面的介词不变。
He was just falling asleep when there was a loud knock at the door.
他刚要入睡时.就有人大声敲门。

13.谢谢你的帮助。
错:Thank your help.
对:Thank you for your help. / Thanks for your help.
表示“谢谢某人的,,应用Thank sb. (for sth.)或Thanks (for sth.)

14.我在回家路上看到他。
错:I saw him on the way to home.
对:I saw him on the way home.
home在这里是副词,其前面不可加介词to。表示在某人回家的路上应用on one's way home.但接名词时,应带to。如:
She bought a new pen on her way to school.
她在去上学的路上买了一支新钢笔。

15.你一定要准时到这儿来。
错:You must be here in time.
对:You must be here on time.
表示“准时”英语习惯说on time; in time是“及时”的意思。

16.你什么时候到达台湾的?
错:When did you arrive at Taiwan?
对:When did you arrive in Taiwan?
在英语中“到达”大地方(国家、地区、城市等)用arrive at。“到达”小地方(学校、车站)用arrive in。

17.到转角处你就向右转。
错:Turn to the right in the corner.
对:Turn to the right at the corner.
corner前面用介词in,意为在角落内,不合句意。at the corner表示在转角处。

18.树上有一只鸟。
错:There is a bird on the tree.
对:There is a bird in the tree.
该句“鸟在树上”是指“鸟在树叶之中”,英语中习‘质用介词in。如果表示树叶或果实长在树枝上,则用介词ono
There are a lot of apples on the tree.
树上结着很多苹果。

19.汤姆在欧洲旅行了好几个地方。
错:Tom has traveled several places in Europe.
对:Tom has traveled to several places in Europe.
trave}是不及物动词,其后不可直接跟名词作宾语,通常跟介词to后再接地方名词。

20.在他们的帮助下,我们按时完成了工作。
错:Under their help, we finished our work on time.
对:With their help, we finished our wok on time.
“在某人帮助下”英语习惯说with the help of sb.,或with sb's help,不可用under替with。

21.他一个星期后就回来。
错:He will be back after a week.
对:He will be back in a week.
"after+一段时间”通常用于一般过去时态;.in+一段时间”通常用于简单未来时态中.且常用于肯定句。

22.我想他将在三点钟以后回来。
错:I think that he'll be back in three o'clock.
对:I think that he'll be back after three o'clock.
介词in一般表示从现在起往后推的“一段时间”,若指“具体时间”以后.应用介词after。

23.他们正在谈论那部新电影。
错:They are talking with the new film.
对:They are talking about the new film.
指“谈论某事”时,应用talk about sth.。指“和某人谈话”时,用talk to/with sb。

24.他从远处观看。
错:He watched far away from.
对:He watched from far away.
far away from后面必须跟一个地方名词,表示“离某地很远”,如:The moon is far away from the earth.(月亮离地球很遥远。)而from far away是“从远处”的意思。

25.到今年年底,这个城市的人口将超过一百万。
错:The population of the city will pass one million at the end of this year.
对:The population of the city will pass one million by the end of this year.
by the end of的意思是“到……末”表示一段时间。而at the end of的意思是“在……末”表示时间点。
We will have an English exam at the end of this week.
本周末我们将进行一次英语考试。

26.我叔叔在农场工作。
错:My uncle works in the伯rm.
对:My uncle works on the farm.
“在农场”英语习惯说on the farm.而不说in the farm。

27.我花了500元买这本字典。
错:I paid five hundred dollars on the dictionary.
对:I paid five hundred dollars for the dictionary.
对:I spent five hundred dollars on the dictionary.
在英语中,表示“花钱买某物”可用spend on也可用pay for,但介词搭配不可换用。

28.以前我从未听过那件事。
错:I have never heard that before.
对:I have never heard of that before.
表示“听别人说起过某人或某事”用hear of。

29.不准再拿我的粉笔玩。
错:Don't play my chalk any more.
对:Don't play with my chalk any more.
表示“拿……玩”应用play with, play为不及物动词。但说“打球”“玩游戏”“演奏乐器”时,用play作及物动词。如:play basketball打篮球),play games(玩游戏),play the piano(弹钢琴)。

30.他已病了三天。
错:He has been ill since three days.
对: He has been ill for three days.
现在完成时have/has been表示从过去某时间到现在的一段时间所持续的状态,往往和以since或for引导的时间短语连用,但应注意:"for+一段时
l’ed”“since+过去时lei的一点,,。如:for two years, for three weeks, for two hours, since 1998, since two o'clock, since two years ago。

3I.读下面的短文。找出这些问题的答案。
错:Read the following passage and find out the answers of these questions.
对: Read the following passage and find out the answers to these questions.
在英语中.表示“的”并非都用of.有时须用to。又如:
I lost the key to the room
我遗失了房间的钥匙。

32.我喜欢苹果,不喜欢香蕉。
错:I prefer apples than bananas.
对: I prefer apples to bananas.
prefer...to是固定搭配,不可换为其他字。注意,这呈。是介词,后接名词、代词或动名词。例如:
I prefer swimming to skating.
我喜欢游泳.不喜欢溜冰。

33.春天是一年中最好的季节。
错:Spring is the best season in the year.
对: Spring is the best season of the year.
在含有形容词最高级或副词最高级的句子里,表示范围的介词短语有时用of引导,有时用in引导。一般地说,表示具体的范围用of(同类相比),如of all, of the three。表示不具体的范围用in(不同类相比),如:in Taiwan, in our class.

34.这种纸是用木头做的。
错:This kind of paper is made of wood.
对: This kind of paper is made from wood.
be made o环口be made from都有“由……制成,,的意思。Be made o表示制成品中还能看出原材料.be made from表示制成品中看不出或很难看出原材料。

35.艾尔斯山的山脚下。大部分地面覆盖着森林和草地。
错:Under the foot of Ayers Rock, most of the ground is covered with forest and grass.
对: At the foot of Ayers Rock, most of the ground is covered with forest and grass.
在英语中表示“在……的脚下”应用at the foot of不用under the foot of。

36.我把球扔给他,他用球扔向狗。
错:I threw the ball to him and he threw it to dog.
对: I threw the ball to him and he threw it at the dog.
一般地说,at同某些动词连用,常表示攻击的目标,含有某种程度的恶意,to则只表示方向,并无恶意可言。所以throw sth. to sb.的意思是“把某物扔给某人”throw sth. at sb.的意思是“扔某物砸某人”(含恶意)。

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

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