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躺着就能学英语语法Chapter13-7:"for+宾格+不定式”的用法(MP3)

della1 于2013-07-17发布 l 已有人浏览
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躺着就能学英语语法Chapte13-7讲的是"for+宾格+不定式”的用法,附有Mp3和文本。
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躺着就能学英语语法Chapter13-7:"for+宾格+不定式”的用法

" for sb. to do sth.”在句中可做:主语、宾语、关系代词、形容词、副词。
这种for sb. to do sth.复合结构中的宾语是不定式动作的发出者,这种结构可以在句中担任:

POINT 1 作主语
例子:
It's dangerous for them to play in the street.
(作主语的不定式常用it来替代,动词不定式后置。
对于他们来说,在街道上玩是危险的。
It is hard for her to say good-bye.
对她来说.道声再见是很难的。

POINT 2 作宾语
例子:
They gave this work for Kevin to do.
他们把这项工作交给凯文做。

POINT 3 作关系代词
例子:
This is the only way for them to choose.
这是他们能选择的唯一方法。

POINT 4 作形容词
例子:
This kind of music is for children to listen to.
这种音乐是给孩子们听的。

POINT 5 作副词
例子:
She opened the windows for the sunshine to come in
她打开窗户让阳光照进来。

容易犯错的句子:
1.你最好不要去那里。
错:You'd better not to go there.
错:You had not better go there.
对:You'd better not go there.
had better是一个固定短语,后接原形动词,had better do sth.的意思是“最好做某事,,,其否定句式是had better not do sth.,not应放在better后,不可以说:had not better do sth.或had better not to do sth.

2.让我们停下来休息一下吧。
错:Let's stop having a rest.
对:Let's  stop to have a rest.
stop having a rest是“停止休息,,的意思,而stop to do sth.“停下正在做的
事而去做另一件事”,所以表示“停下来休息一会”应说:stop to have arest。试比较:
Stop talking, please.
请不要说话了。
He stopped to talk to her.
他停下来跟她谈话。

3.玛丽正忙于做作业。
错:Mary is busy to do her homework.
对:Mary is busy (in) doing her homework.
对:Mary is busy with her homework.
在英语中表示“忙于做某事”应说:be busy (in) doing sthobusy后不接动词不定式,跟名词或代词时,应说:be busy with sth。

4.老师叫他上学不要再迟到。
错:The teacher told him don't be late for school again.
对:The teacher told him not to be late for school again.
“叫某人做某事,,应说:tell sb to do sth,其否定形式是tell sb not to do sth.o不定式短语在句子中作宾语补语。

5.格林先生喜欢住在台湾。
错:Mr. Green enjoys to live in Taiwan.
对:Mr. Green enjoys living in Taiwan.
enjoy后可跟名词、代词或动名词作宾语,不能跟不定式。

6.汤姆在看他们打篮球。
错:Tom is watching them to play basketball.
对:Tom is watching them play basketball.
在动词watch, see带to。hear, let, make等后面跟不定式作宾语补语时.不定式不

7.我希望你能来。
错:I hope you to come.
对:I hope that you will come.
hope可以跟不定式或从句,但不能跟带不定式的复合结构。

8.他让我等了一周。
错:He kept me to wait for a week.
对:He kept me waiting for a week.
"keep+宾语”后跟动词时,一般应接现在分词作宾语补语,不跟动词不定式。又如:
Don't keep your mother waiting.
不要让你妈妈等了。

9.我花了一个小时作功课。
错:It took me one hour doing my homework.
对:It took me one hour to do my homework.
“花费某人多长时间做某事”,应用句型It takes(过去时took,将来时will take ) sb. sometime to do sth..其中的不定式不可换为动名词。

10.我不知道是否要去那儿。
错:I don't know if to go there or not.
对:I don't know whether to go there or not.
带know的动词不定式,可用在whether后与whether一起作谓语动词的宾语.但不可直接跟在i循面。

11.你想买什么?
错:What do you want buy?
错:What do you want buying?
对:What do you want to buy?
表示“想要做什么?”应说:want to do sth., want后跟不定式(短语)。

12.这男孩看起来做得很好。
错:The boy looks to do it quite well.
对:The boy seems to do it quite well.
loo呀口seem都可跟动词不定式,表示“看起来”的意思,但是look后只能和to be连用。例如:
She looks to be very young.
她看起来很年轻。

13.我不知道应该怎么办。
错:I don't know how to do.
对:I don't know what to do.
中文中“怎么办”实际上是“做什么”,本句中wha昨to do的宾语,不能用how。比较:
I don't know what to do.
我不知道该怎么办。( wha昨to do宾语。)
I don't know how to do it。
我不知道如何做这件事。(how作to do的副词)

14.请给我一张纸写些东西。
错:Please give me a piece of paper to write.
对:Please give me a piece of paper to write on.
动词不定式作关系代词时,与其前面所修饰的名词在逻辑上有主从关系,所以不定式应是及物动词。如果说不定式是不及物动词,应在后面加上合适的介词。又如:
He had only a small room to live in.
他只有一个小房间居住。

15.记得帮我寄信。
错:Remember mailing the letter for me.
对:Remember to mail the letter for me.
remember后可接动名词,也可接不定式作宾语,但意思不同,接动名词时指过去的动作,接不定式时指将来的动作。比较:
I remember seeing this film before.
我记得以前看过这部电影。

16.你出去时不要忘了关灯。
错:Don't forget turning off the light when you go out.
对:Don't forget to turn off the light when you go out.
forget后可跟不定式,也可跟动名词,但意思差别很大,跟不定式是表示“忘记去做某事(还没做),跟动名词是表示“过去做过的事情此刻忘记了”。比较:
I forgot to meet her there.
我忘记到那儿去跟她见面。(没见面)
I forgot meeting her there.
我忘记曾在那儿跟她见过面。(不确定是否见过面)

17.你的信写完了吗?
错:Have you finished to write the letter?
对:Have you finished writing the letter?
动词finish后可跟名词、代词或动名词作宾语.不能跟不定式。

18.你想要喝一杯茶吗?
错:Would you like having a cup of tea?
对:Would you like to have a cup of tea?
对:Would you like a cup of tea?
would like后可跟名词、代词或动词不定式.但不能跟动名词。

19.请你不要这样做好吗?
错:Will you please not to do this?
对:Will you please not do this?
will you please后应跟不带to的动词不定式,其否定是在不定式前加not。

20.为什么不出去散散步呢?
错:Why not to go for a walk?
错:Why not going for a walk?
对:Why not go for a walk?
"why not+原形动词”通常用来表示建议。注意后面不能跟动名词或带to的动词不定式。

21.你需要搭5号公车。
错:You need take the No. 5 bus.
对:You need to take the No. 5 bus.
need作情态动词时一般用于疑问句和否定句,不用于肯定句,这里need应用作实义动词.后跟带to的不定式短语作宾语。

22. see sb. doing sth.和see sb. do sth.在意思上有什么区别?
see sb. doing sth.的意思是“看见某人正在做某事”着重动作的部分过程,
表示动作当时正在进行;see sb. do sth.的意思是“看见某人做过某事”,着重于动作的全过程,表示动作已经完成或结束。比较:
I saw him playing basketball on the playground
我看见他在操场上打篮球。(着重打篮球动作正在进行)
I saw him play basketball on the playground.
我看见他在操场上打过篮球。(着重打篮球的全过程及完成。)

23.过来喝一杯牛奶好吗?
错:Come having a glass of milk, will you?
对:Come and have a glass of milk will you?
祈使句中come, go, run, stay, hurry up等动词或动词短语后习惯上用and来代
替表示目的的不定式。如:
Come and meet my family.
见见我的家人。
Go and see.
  (你)去看看。

24.莉莉病了,不想吃饭。
错:Lily is ill; she doesn't feel like to eat.
对:ily is ill; she doesn't feel like eating.
feel like后可跟名词或代词.跟动词时要用动名词.不能跟不定式。

25.我只想闭上眼睛尽快入睡。
错:I just want to close my eyes and to go to sleep as quickly as possible.
对:I just want to close my eyes and go to sleep as quickly as possible.
当两个或更多的动词不定式连用时,如果它们在句中的语法功能相同或相似.只需在第一个动词不定式带to.后面不定式都不能带to。

26.你和我一起去玩好吗?好吧,我乐意去。
错:一Will you go and play with me?一Yes, I'm glad.
对:一Will you go and play with me?一Yes, I'm glad to.
当to单独使用时,表示句中省略了一个不定式。这种省略适用于对话中或上下文已提到过或使用过的动词,但to不能省略。该句答句中“be glad to”后省略 "go and play with you",但to不能省略。

27.他什么也不说,只是哭。
错:He said nothing but to cry.
对:He said nothing but cry.
含有nothing but的句子含有实义动词do (does, did)时,其后面的不定式不带to,又如:
He did nothing but laugh.
他什么也不做.只是在大笑。

28.听到这件事我很难过。
错:I'm sorry hearing that.
对:I'm sorry to hear that.
动词不定式常用在某些形容词后面作副词,说明产生这种情绪的原因等。这种结构中常用的形容词有:happy, glad, sorry, angry, kind, pleased等。注意:这类形容词后一般不跟动名词作副词。

 

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