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躺着就能学英语语法Chapter18-4:关系代词从句(MP3)

della1 于2013-07-17发布 l 已有人浏览
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躺着就能学英语语法Chapter18-4讲的是关系代词从句,附有Mp3和文本。
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躺着就能学英语语法Chapter18-4:关系代词从句

★从句用作关系代词叫关系代词从句。常用that , wh。引导,修饰主句中的名词或代词。

★that既可指人,也可指物,在关系代词从句中作主语或宾语。作宾语时可以省略掉。whom指人,用作主语,不能省略,但可以用that来替换。

从句用作关系代词叫关系代词从句。关系代词从句修饰主句中的名词或代词,被修饰的词称为先行词。关系代词从句常用that,  who
引导。

例子:
This is the book that you are looking for.
这就是你要找的书。
( you are looking for是关系代词从句,修饰前面的名词book)
In America Mother's Day started quite differently from the way it started in Britain.
母亲节在美国的创立,完全不同于它在英国的创始情况。
( it started in Britain是关系代词从句,修饰前面的名词way )

POINT 1 that引导从句的用法                                                                                      
that通常用来引导关系代词从句。that既可指人,也可指物,在关系代词从句中作主语或宾语。that在关系代词从句中作宾语可以省略掉。
1.作宾语
例子:
The only language (that) I know well is English.
我熟悉的唯一语言是英语。
that引导宾语从句,在从句中作宾语,被省略掉。可以这样理解:
The language is English. I know the language well.(language作know的宾语)
that在从句中代表language,所以在从句中不能再重复使用language.
例子:
That's one thing (that) I haven't forgotten today!
这就是我今天没有忘记的东西。
( that在从句中作宾语,可省略掉)
Larry found the pen that he had lost.
赖瑞找到了他弄丢的钢笔。

2.作主语
例子:
The man that came first today is Mike.
今天第一个来到的是麦克。
( that引导从句,在从句中作主语不能省略掉。)
Wheat is a plant that is grown in mid-west America.
小麦是美国中部种植的一种植物。
(在关系代词从句中作主语)
The house that stands on the hi川s mine.
在山上的那所房子是我的。
( that stands on the hill是关系代词从句,修饰house,that在
关系代词从句中作主语。)

POINT 2 who引导从句的用法
who引导关系代词从句时指人,用作主语,不能省略;但也可以用that来替换。
例子:
The man who came first today is Mike.
今天第一个到来的是麦克。
(who引导关系代词从句,并作主语不能省略。)
The young man who came to see her is her brother.
来探望她的那个年轻人是她的哥哥。
He's the man who/that lives in the next room.
他就是住在隔壁的那个人。

容易犯错的句子:
1.我知道她住在哪里。
错:I know where does she live.
对:I know where she lives.
宾语从句无论是表示陈述,还是表示疑问,都必须用陈述语序,即主语在前.动词在后。

2.他说他那时正在踢足球。
错:He said that he is playing soccer at that time.
对:He said that he was playing soccer at that time.
当主句动词是一般现在时、现在完成时或一般将来时,宾语从句的动词可根据需要使用相应的任何一种时态。
I know+
she is a teacher.
she will come back in two days.
she has just finished it.
she went to Taiwan two days ago.

当主句动词是一般过去时.宾语从句的动词必须使用过去时态的相应形式。
He asked me+
what I wanted.
where I was going.
when I would leave.
why I had come here

3.老师说地球是圆的。
错:The teacher said that the earth was round.
对:The teacher said that the earth is round.
当宾语从句表示的是客观真理或客观规律、自然现象、格言,其动词不受主句动词的时态限制,习惯上使用一般现在时。
The teacher said the sun rises in the east and sets in the west.
老师说太阳从东方升起,西方落下。
The teacher told us the earth is one of the sun's planets.
老师告诉我们地球是太阳的一颗行星。

4.我认为你的答案不对。
错:I think your answer isn't right.
对:I don't think your answer is right.
当宾语从句表示否定之意,且主句中主语是I,动词为think, believe等时, 习惯上是将否定移转.使主句成为否定式.而从句使用肯定式。

5.我认为你不是老师,是吗?
错:I don't think you are a teacher, do I?
错:I don't think you are a teacher, aren't you?
对:I don't think you are a teacher, are you?
若附加疑问句中含有宾语从句,且主句是}think,}believe等表示看法的用语.附加疑问部分的主、动词一般要与从句的主、动词一致。

6.他们正在谈论格林先生是否会讲中文。
错:They are talking about if Mr. Green can speak Chinese.
对:They are talking about whether Mr. Green can speak Chinese.

连词if或whether引导宾语从句时,一般可互换使用,但当作介词宾语时.只能用whether。

7.他一回来,我就会告诉他这个好消息。
错:I will tell him the good news as soon as he will come back.
对:I will tell him the good news as soon as he comes back.
在由when, before , after,as soon as等引导的时ie}状语从句中,如果主句 的动词是一般将来时.从句中的动词用一般现在时代替将来时。

8.一他为什么没来上学?一因为他病了。
错:一Why didn't he come to school?一For he was ill.
对:一Why didn't he come to school?一Because he was ill.
虽然for也可表示原因或理由,但回答why的问句只能用because来回答,表示直接的原因。

9.如果你不赶快的话,你上课要迟到了。
错:You'll be late for class if you won't hurry up.
对:You'll be late for class if you don't hurry up.
在以if引导的条件状语从句中,如果主句的动词是一般将来时,从句往往用一般现在时代替将来时。

10.昨天当我的朋友来的时候,我正忙于做作业。
错:While my friend came yesterday, I was busy doing my homework.
对:When my friend came yesterday, I was busy doing my homework.
while只可指一段时间,不可指时间点,所以在while从句中动词必须是延续性动词;而'when主要指时间点,也可用来表示一段时间,所以when从句中的动词可以是延续性的;也可以是非延续性的。

11.他把功课写完,才去睡觉。
错:He went to bed until he finished his homework.
对:He didn't go to bed until he finished his homework.
在含有。ntil/ti日从句的复合句中,如果主句中的动词是非延续性动词,则用否定句式.表示这一动作直到何时才发生。

12.他太生气了。以至于说不出话来。
错:He was too angry that he couldn't speak.
对:He was so angry that he couldn't speak.
对:He was too angry to speak.
在“so+形容词或副词+that”句型中,so不能用very, to。或其他程度副词替换。该句也可用“too...to”句型来表达。

13.我不知道他是否会来。
错:I don't know if he comes.
对:I don't know if he will come.
这里的if作“是否”解,相当于whether,引导宾语从句。由于主句是一般现在时.宾语从句表示的动作尚未发生.所以要用一般将来时。

14.这个房间比那个房间大得多。
错:This room is more bigger than that one.
错:This room is very bigger than that one.
对:This room is much bigger than that one.
在形容词或副词比较级前不能用very,更不能用more剩多饰,可用much even·a little等来修饰。

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