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电子烟利弊大论战:到底对健康有益or有害?

kira86 于2018-10-18发布 l 已有人浏览
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电子烟对健康到底有益还是有害呢?大众对电子烟是何看法呢?这篇调查告诉你。

 

 (文章来源:美国《医学快讯》网站
原文地址:https://m.medicalxpress.com/news/2018-10-e-cigs-debate-health-risksbenefits.html

原标题:E-cigs continue to spark debate over health risks/benefits

电子烟好坏大论战

October 10, 2018 by Amy Norton, Healthday Reporter

艾米·诺顿(Amy Norton) 2018-10-10

(HealthDay)—With sales of electronic cigarettes skyrocketing, Americans remain divided on whether the devices are a boon or a threat to public health.

(HealthDay)——虽然电子烟的销量激增,但美国对电子烟是公众健康的“福音”还是“危害”分歧很大。

That's the main finding of a new HealthDay/Harris Poll that surveyed over 2,000 adults on their e-cigarette views.

之所以得出这一结论,是因为HealthDay/哈里斯民调收集了2000多位成年人对电子烟的看法。

Vaping has long been promoted as a way to help smokers kick the habit—offering them a route to get nicotine without the carcinogens in tobacco smoke.

长久以来,蒸汽电子烟都作为戒断烟瘾的一种手段推而广之,使用电子烟的好处就是可以避免吸入致癌物。

But e-cigarettes aren't harmless, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and other health authorities. There's particular concern about young people vaping—in part, because nicotine can harm brain development, which continues until about age 25.

但美国疾控中心(CDC)和其他健康权威机构认为电子烟并非100%安全。 他们尤其关切蒸汽电子烟对青年人的影响,因为尼古丁会对大脑发育造成不良影响,而大脑完全发育大概在25岁左右。

In the poll, most adults did have misgivings about e-cigarettes: 85 percent said they were worried that the long-term health effects of the devices are unknown; and 83 percent were at least "somewhat" concerned about teenagers using e-cigarettes.

在这项民调中,大部分成年人对电子烟确实心存顾忌。 85%的人称电子烟对健康的长期影响还不得而知;另有83%表示了对青少年使用电子烟的担忧。

In fact, 43 percent of adults felt that e-cigarettes are actually more dangerous than traditional cigarettes.

事实上,43%的成年人觉得电子烟比传统卷烟更危险。

On the flip side, about as many people (41 percent) viewed e-cigarettes as "healthier" than traditional cigarettes. And 42 percent rated them as an "excellent way" to quit.

反过来讲,约有41%的人认为电子烟比传统卷烟更安全健康。 42%的人甚至将它评为戒断烟瘾的“最佳方式”。

It all adds up to differing views, and possibly confusion, about e-cigarettes and their health effects.

这种种结果只会让公众对电子烟极其对健康的影响更加困惑。

There are, in fact, many unknowns.

电子烟有太多的未知等待探索。

Unfortunately, at this time we have no scientific evidence on the long-term health effects of e-cigarettes, especially given the unknown effects of the aerosols and flavorings in e-cigarette liquids, said Dr. Thanh-Huyen Vu, a research assistant professor at Northwestern University in Chicago.

芝加哥西北大学研究助理教授于青玄(Thanh-Huyen Vu)博士称:“很遗憾,我们还未掌握到科学的证据以验证电子烟对健康的长期影响,尤其是烟油中气雾和香料对健康的影响。”

However, researchers know plenty about nicotine.

但研究人员对尼古丁却再熟悉不过了。

The drug "is well known to be addictive and toxic, and to have adverse effects on the cardiovascular system and on health in general," Vu said.

于博士说:“众所周知,尼古丁是一种有毒且会上瘾的物质,对整体健康以及心血管都有不良影响。”

And that's enough to raise concerns about teenagers' e-cigarette use, she added.

她说这已足够引起公众对青少年使用电子烟的担忧。

In addition, Vu said, studies have found that teenagers and young adults who use e-cigarettes are more likely than non-users to take up smoking.

于博士还说,已经有研究发现使用电子烟的青少年和年轻人更容易染上烟瘾。

And what about adults who use e-cigarettes in place of traditional ones?

那那些使用电子烟完全替代传统卷烟的人现在怎么样了呢?

The devices do allow people to avoid the chemicals they would inhale from burning tobacco, Vu noted.

于博士也注意到,电子烟确认可以避免使用者吸入烟草燃烧释放的化学物。

It's been speculated that using them may be associated with better health outcomes, compared to traditional cigarette smoking, she said.

她还说到:“相比传统卷烟,使用电子烟对健康更有利,这一猜测一直存在。”

But again, Vu pointed out, there's the nicotine and its own health effects.

然而于博士指出电子烟含有尼古丁,尼古丁对健康的影响不言而喻。

E-cigarettes come in different forms, with some emulating traditional cigarettes or pipes. One highly popular brand, called Juul, is shaped like a USB flash drive, and reportedly accounts for one-third of e-cigarette sales in the United States.

电子烟形状各异,有些似传统香烟,有些似烟斗;其中 Juul是最受欢迎的一个牌子,外形类似USB,据报道它的销量占美国电子烟市场的三分之一。

Last week, the CDC reported that Juul sales shot up 641 percent between 2016 and 2017. Researchers called the trend worrying because the devices have a particularly high nicotine content and are popular with young people.

上个星期,CDC的报告指出Juul在2016和2017年间的销量暴涨641%。研究人员称这一趋势让人担忧,因为电子烟的尼古丁含量很高,在年轻人中尤其受欢迎。

No teenager should be vaping, said Gregory Conley, president of the American Vaping Association—referring to a common term for e-cigarette use.

美国蒸汽烟协会(American Vaping Association)会长格雷戈里·康利(Gregory Conley)认为青少年就不应该使用蒸汽电子烟。

However, Conley disputed the notion that e-cigarettes are driving kids to smoke. As researchers from the University of Buffalo recently argued, teen smoking has continued to decline at the same time e-cigarette use has risen.

然而,康利并不认为电子烟和青少年儿童吸烟有必然联系。 最近,布法罗分校的研究人员辩称电子烟的引入反而使青少年烟民数量降低了。

Conley questioned the poll finding that 43 percent of people think e-cigarettes are more dangerous than traditional cigarettes. He said past surveys have found less fear around the devices.

同时,康利也对“43%的人认为电子烟比传统卷烟更危险”这一民调结论持质疑态度。 他说过去的所有调查都指向电子烟危害小。

But if people do think vaping is worse than smoking, Conley blamed misleading messages from certain researchers and media stories.

但如果大众认为蒸汽电子烟比吸烟更糟糕,那么康利就该指责某些研究人员和社交媒体故意给公众传达错误的信息了。

As long as vaping is helping smokers quit, it will bring public health benefits, he said.

他说:“只要蒸汽电子烟有助于戒断烟瘾,它就对公众健康有利。”

Conley pointed to research evidence of that: Last year, a study at Georgetown University estimated that up to 6.6 million smokers would live "substantially longer" if they replaced their traditional cigarettes with e-cigarettes.

康利拿出去年乔治城大学的研究,这项研究证明如果烟民们都从传统卷烟转而电子烟,则将有高达660万的烟民的寿命会更长。

And a 2016 report from the Royal College of Physicians concluded that e-cigarettes—when used by smokers aiming to quit—are "likely" to benefit public health.

英国皇家内科医学会(Royal College of Physicians)2016年的一份报告指出如果那些决心戒断烟瘾的烟民使用电子烟,则很可能给公共健康带来巨大的效益。

Still, Vu said that based on studies so far, it's unclear how effective the devices really are in helping smokers ultimately quit. "E-cigarette use is still new, so it will take time to prove," she added.

然后,于博士说基于目前的研究,电子烟对戒断烟瘾的效用还不明确。 “电子烟仍是新兴事物,需要时间去验证它的长期效益。”

This HealthDay/Harris Poll was conducted online within the United States between Sept. 25-27 2018, among 2,008 U.S. adults (aged 18 and over). This online survey is not based on a probability sample and therefore no estimate of theoretical sampling error can be calculated.

这项民调于2018年9月25至27号采用在线调查的形式进行,参与调查的人数达2008人(年龄大于18岁)。 这项在线调查并非基于概率抽样,因此理论上不存在抽样误差。

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