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美国国家科学院电子烟研究报告:电子烟好坏知多少

kira86 于2018-10-19发布 l 已有人浏览
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美国国家科学院(NAS)公布一项新的报告,报告整合800多项关于电子烟对使用者健康影响的科学研究。

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Report: What’s Known About the Harms and Benefits of E-Cigarettes

电子烟好坏知多少

The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (NAS) has released a new report looking at more than 800 scientific studies about the effects of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) on users’ health.

美国国家科学院(NAS)公布一项新的报告,报告整合800多项关于电子烟对使用者健康影响的科学研究。

The study, mandated by Congress, is the most comprehensive analysis of existing research about e-cigarettes.

此项研究由国会授权,全面分析了电子烟的影响。

The report draws dozens of conclusions about a range of public health impacts of e-cigarettes.

报告得出了一系列关于电子烟对公众健康影响的结论,

However, it does not conclude whether the overall impact is either positive or negative.

但并未提及整体影响是好是坏。

The report pays special attention to the impact of e-cigarettes on children and teenagers, who use them at higher rates than adults do.

报告主要关注电子烟对儿童和青少年的影响,因为这些群体使用电子烟的频率比成人高。

Conclusions from the report:

相关结论

Exposure to nicotine varies, depending on the device, the e-liquid used in the device, and how the user operates it.

个体摄入尼古丁的多少因电子烟中烟油的含量以及个体操作电子烟的方式而异。

Experienced adult users of e-cigarettes can get just as much nicotine as from regular cigarettes. Nicotine is the addictive drug in tobacco.

有经验的成年使用者摄入的尼古丁可能和吸烟一样多。

Most e-cigarettes contain and emit a variety of substances in addition to nicotine that could be toxic.

大部分电子烟含有并释放多种除尼古丁以外的物质,而这些物质可能有毒。

There is generally far less exposure to these other toxic substances from e-cigarettes than from regular cigarettes.

但相比普通卷烟,人们接触电子烟释放的其他有毒物质就少得多了。

Using e-cigarettes can be addictive.

电子烟可能上瘾。

There is some evidence that the severity of an addiction to e-cigarettes likely depends on many factors, including the type and brand of the device, and the nicotine concentration and flavoring in the e-liquid used.

有证据表明对电子烟的成瘾程度取决于多种因素,这其中就包括使用的电子烟的品牌和类型,以及烟油中尼古丁和香料的含量。

There is some evidence that the severity of an addiction to e-cigarettes is lower than for regular cigarettes.

另有证据表明人们对电子烟的成瘾严重程度比普通卷烟要低得多。

Completely switching to e-cigarettes reduces the exposure to many toxins and cancer-causing substances in regular cigarettes.

用电子烟完全代替普通卷烟可以减少人们接触有毒物质和致癌物质的种类。

However, many adults who use e-cigarettes also continue to use other tobacco products, too.

然而,许多成年人在选用电子烟的同时,仍继续吸食卷烟;

In the short term, completely switching to e-cigarettes can lower the harmful effects to the body caused by smoking.

短期而言,完全使用电子烟可以降低吸烟对身体的有害影响。

Long-term effects are not yet clear because e-cigarettes are relatively new. They have only been on the market since 2006.

长期而言,电子烟对身体的影响还不明了,因为电子烟仍是新兴事物(2006年才面世)。

E-cigarettes’ impact on youth

电子烟对青少年的影响

Young people use e-cigarettes more than any other tobacco product, and use them at higher rates than do adults.

青少年更倾向于使用电子烟而非卷烟产品,而且使用的频率比成年人高。

The NAS report found a strong association between youth using e-cigarettes and their likelihood of trying conventional cigarettes.

NAS的报告指出使用电子烟和未来吸食卷烟之间存在很大的关联性。

It’s not yet clear whether young e-cigarette users who try regular cigarettes will continue smoking over the long term.

但使用电子烟的青少年在尝试卷烟之后是否会长期吸食,还不得而知。

In the past, the US Surgeon General has criticized e-cigarette marketers for using strategies that target young people.

美国卫生总署曾公开指责电子烟销售方采用针对青少年的市场宣传策略。

Nicotine is highly addictive at any age, but is especially dangerous for children, teenagers, and young adults because their brains are still developing at this age.

任何阶段的人群都容易迷上尼古丁,其中尤以儿童、青少年和年轻人为甚,这是因为这些人群的大脑还处于发育阶段。

Most users, including youth, prefer to use flavored e-cigarettes.

包括青少年在内的大部分使用者都倾向于选用加了香料的电子烟,

Many flavors appear to be aimed at children, with names such as Cherry Crush and Cotton Candy.

而电子烟的很多口味也都是针对青少年,如樱桃味和棉花糖味。

American Cancer Society experts weigh in

权威发言

Experts from the American Cancer Society (ACS) acknowledge the continuing issues brought up by the NAS report, including:

美国癌症协会(ACS)专家坦言NAS的这份报告会带来一系列的问题,包括:

An association between the use of e-cigarettes by youth and the eventual use of regular cigarettes

关于青少年使用电子烟与吸食普通卷烟的关联性

Evidence that e-cigarettes are not harmless, but are likely to be much less harmful than regular cigarettes

有证据表明电子烟并非完全无害,但极有可能比普通卷烟危害小得多。

The long-term risks of continued use of e-cigarettes are not yet known

使用电子烟带来的长期风险还不得而知。

These are similar to findings of a recent comprehensive review conducted by ACS researchers.

这些结论与ACS最近所做的一项全面研究结论类似。

That review concludes that the overall population health effects of electronic cigarettes are complex, and there is not yet agreement among the scientific community.

ACS的报告指出电子烟对人们健康的整体影响很复杂,这在科学界还没有达成统一意见。

The populations most vulnerable to harmful effects of e-cigarettes might be youth and pregnant women because they are more likely than other populations to be harmed by exposure to nicotine.

电子烟的有害影响主要集中在青少年和孕妇,因为他们比其他群体更容易因接触尼古丁而遭受不良影响。

The American Cancer Society Cancer Action Network, the advocacy affiliate of the American Cancer Society, is urging the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to use its full authority to regulate all tobacco products, including e-cigarettes.

ACS的下属国家政策动议机构癌症行动网络正全力敦促美国食品药品监督管理局(FDA)使用其一切职权对包括电子烟在内的一切烟草产品实行管制。

The FDA announced in 2016 that it would begin regulating e-cigarettes, hookahs, cigars, and other tobacco products the same way it does regular cigarettes.

FDA声称会于2016年对电子烟、水烟、雪茄和其他烟草制品实行与普通卷烟一样严厉的管控措施。

But it later delayed until 2022 the deadline for tobacco companies to apply for approval to keep selling their products.

但随后将此日期推迟至2022年,即:截止2022年,所有烟草公司如需继续销售烟草制品须获得FDA许可。

原文来源:https://www.cancer.org/latest-news/report-whats-known-about-the-harms-and-benefits-of-e-cigarettes.html?_ga=2.49422434.518996323.1539409932-127578105.1539409932

 

注意事项:American Cancer Society news stories are copyrighted material and are not intended to be used as press releases. For reprint requests, please see our Content Usage Policy

注意事项:此网站所有文章版权均归美国癌症协会所有。如需转载或翻印,请仔细阅读相关政策(Content Usage Policy).

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