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用英语说中国历史Chapter3:商朝-商朝的政治(英汉)

lishan 于2015-09-01发布 l 已有人浏览
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用英语说中国历史Chapter3:商朝-商朝的政治,含有中英双语对照阅读。

State System : The Shang Dynasty practiced hereditary system, in which the throne was transmitted from elder brother to younger one or from father to son. At the late stage of the Shang Dynasty, that the title was passed down to son via primogeniture was finally established, and the first born of the queen was usually the heir. It laid an important foundation for the feudal-patriarchal system in the Zhou Dynasty.

国家制度:商朝基本上是王位世袭制,从兄终弟及、父死子继到商后期确立了嫡长子继承制,这也是后来周朝宗法制的重要基础。

Meanwhile, the Shang Dynasty was also famous for its divination. The existent inscriptions on the oracle bones are the records of it.

同时,商的占卜也很出名,现存的甲骨文便是占卜的记录。

The rule of king was confined to the narrow central land, the around areas and peripheries were manors of royal members and clans. The centralized-power had not come into being.

商王的统治仅仅限于狭小的中央地带,四周及边缘地区是王室诸子及各族的领地,中央集权还没有形成。

State Organs:The state organization was more perfect, mainly embodied in the official system, army and penal code.

国家机构:商的国家机构比夏代更加完善,主要表现在官制、军队和刑罚三个方面。

The king of the Shang Dynasty was the imperator, arrogating all powers to himself; under him was the minister, the head of all officials, assisting the king to rule the country. Other officials under the prime minister took charge of agriculture,handicraft industry and military affairs, etc.

商王是最高统治者,独揽大权;王之下设相,是百官之长,辅佐商王以统治全国;相之下有官员,管理农业、手工业生产和军事。

Others with religious functions were the shamans, the recorders and the diviners.

还有卜、史、巫、尹等,为卜筮、记事之官。

The dynasty had a large army with certain division.

商朝的军队庞大,有一定的编制。

Oracle-bone inscriptions stated that the king had set up three army units—the right, the center and the left. Solders were mainly commoners, sometimes including slaves.

据甲骨文记载商王编军队为左、中、右 三师,士兵主要由平民组成,有时也有奴隶。

It was also recorded that the king dispatched an army of three thousand or five thousand, sometimes even thirteen thousand to go to war.

有史料经载,商王曾派3 000 ~5 000人出兵打仗,更有参战士兵多达13000人的时候。

Shang had many prisons as well as statute laws, including cruel punishments, which reflected the development of slavery.

商朝的监狱很多,刑罚很残酷,这是奴隶制度发展的反映。

Penal Code of Tang in the Shang Dynasty is the written law with cruel penalty.

商有《汤刑》,为成 文法,刑罚很残酷。

Slave owners and nobles wielded such a colossal state apparatus to exploit and oppress the majority of slaves and common-ers.

商朝奴隶主贵族依靠这样庞大的国家机器对广大奴隶和平民 进行残酷的经济剥削和政治压迫。 

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