用英语说中国历史Chapter3:商朝-重要帝王 (英汉)

lishan 于2015-09-01发布 l 已有人浏览
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Tang of Shang:At the end of the Xia Dynasty, the Shang tribe became powerful gradually. Witnessing tyrannical activities of Jie, and the alienation of the popular will, Tang was determined to overthrow Xia.


Meanwhile, Jie feared that the might iness of Shang might be a threat, so he summoned Tang to the capital and imprisoned him in Xiatai.


The Shang tribe immediately sent a lot of money to Jie and bribed his favorites as well. Therefore, Tang was released.


After this, he tried to win people’s support with benevolent policies.


First,heenumeratedJie,simmoraty, calling on vassal states to desert Jie and submit to his authority. Then,to those who refused to follow his advice, he launched successive wars to eliminate Jie's power.


The more he fought, the stronger he was, while Jie became isolated.


Later, Tang moved the capital to Bo, and the preparation to attack the Xia Dynasty was finally made.


Tang adopted Yi Yin’s suggestions to stop paying tribute to the Xia Dynasty in order to sound out the strength of Jie.


Soon, Jie ordered Jiuyi tribes to dispatch troops to go on a punitive expedition on Tang. This indicated that Jie was able to maneuver the army of Jiuyi, so Tang and Yi Yin apologized to Jie at once, and resumed paying tribute.


A year later, Jiuyi tribes could not bear the inhumane control of Jie and rebelled one after another; Jie’s power was greatly weakened.


Tang and Yi Yin took the opportunity of it, calling on all tribes to crusade against Jie. Consequently ,Jie was defeated at the battle of Mingtiao (East of the present-day Fengqiu in Henan). Tang established the second slave dynasty—the Shang Dynasty, and the capital was Bo.


During his reign, Tang lightened taxes and encouraged production to appease the morale.


His influence spread to the upper reaches of the Yellow River, and many outlying tribes became vassal states.


The Shang Dynasty became another powerful dynasty.


Tang had been the tribe leader for 17 years and the king of the Shang Dynasty for 13 years after he founded it.


He died of illness.


Yi Yin:The establishment of the Shang Dynasty had a close connection with the assistance of Yi Yin.


Yi Yin, the prime minister, had been a dowry slave of Tang’s wife working in the kitchen.


He was very capable. In order to have Tang notice his ability, he sometimes cooked the meal delicious, sometimes salty or tasteless deliberately.


When Tang blamed him for this, Yi Yin took the opportunity to utter his opinion about administration, and Tang was shocked. Realizing his talent, Tang freed Yi Yin and assigned him as the prime minister.


Since then,under the design of Yi Yin, Tang made an active preparation to overthrow the Xia Dynasty.


After the death of Tang, Yi Yin assisted Tang’three children ruling the country.


King Tai Jia did not obey the decree made by Tang in his three-year reign, and Yi Yin persuaded him for many times, but failed. Consequently, Yi Yin shut him in Tonggong Palace, hoping him to have a self-reflection, and governed the state himself.


Living in the Tonggong Palace for three years, Tai Jia eventually regretted and went straight. Then, Yi Yin restored him.


TaiJia became benevolent and diligent, so the people began to live a stable life, and all vassal states admired him very much.

太甲改恶从善, 勤政修德,人民生活安定,各属国都很钦佩。

Living for more than a hundred years, Yi Yin had been the prime minister for twenty years, laying a solid foundation for the stabilization of the Shang Dynasty. He became the first capable official in Chinese history.


Pan Geng: After the establishment, the Shang Dynasty moved five times in three hundred years due to the deluge of the Yellow River, or civil strifes.


Among them,the most famous one was Pan Geng’s move to Yin (the present-day Anyang in Henan). Once settled, the Shang Dynasty had never moved, so it is also called Yin Shang.Pan Geng was the nineteenth king.


He removed the capital to Yin after a fierce struggle.


Kings succeeded Tai Jia all lived a decayed life. They were superstitious and paid little attention to state affairs.

太甲后的历代君, 王生活逐渐腐化,迷信鬼神,不知发展生产。

With the internal struggle for power and conflicts among the nobility intensified,arms were frequently appealed to.


At the same time, some vassal states did not obey the command, each going his own way and fighting with each other.


Pan Geng succeeded in peril.


He was a sagacious and virtuous ruler. When analyzing the situation,he believed that the capital should be moved to Yin, but the notion offended the interest of the majority of nobles, and encountered strong objection.Meanwhile, the common people were in dread of migration, and reluctant to leave their hometown.


Determined, Pan Geng finally led his officials and civilians to trudge from the north of the Yellow River to Yin, in the south of the Yellow River.


When settled, the state began to practice Tang’s policy, so that the political situation tended to be stabilized, the declination held back, the goal to make the country strong was achieved, and a new economic and cultural prospect also came forth.


Wu Ding:Wu Ding, the best ruler after Pan Geng, left behind him a much-told story in history.


He is supposed to have spent his early years among the common people, being familiar with their hardship;therefore, he formed a simple living habit. Additionally, he made friend with a slave, Fu Yue, who was twenty years older than he was.


Though a slave, Fu Yue was bright and capable.


When he became the king, Wu Ding intended to have Fu Yue as prime minister, but feared that the other officials would not agree because of Fu Yue's identity.


It is said that Wu1 Ding had not uttered a word for three years. One day, he suddenly said that in the dream the forefather Tang had asked him to invite Fu Yue to be the prime minister.


Then he described the appearance and locality of Fu Yue, ordering officials to look for him. Fu Yue was found among the criminals eventually.


Since the Shang people trusted ghost, the nobility dared not to object when Fu Yue was appointed as prime minister.


Thereafter, there were some innovations in politics, the state became stable, and the Shang Dynasty restored.


King Zhou of Shang :King Di Xin, the last king of the Shang Dynasty is called Zhou, one of the notorious despots in Chinese history.


Quick-witted and Quick-tempered ,Shang Zhou in his early reign showed the abilities which surpassed the ordinary man.


He headed the troops to fight a long time war with the Dongyi tribe, during which he won the battle frequently.


After the victory over Dongyi, he spread the advanced technology and culture of Shang to the Huaishui River and the Yangtze River valley, so he was a king who had made achievements and contributions.


However, the constant war exhausted the state power, and tadded to the people’s burden.


Meanwhile, the triumph developed Shang Zhou’thought of being proud and seeking for enjoyment, which made him become another notorious tyranny after Xia Jie.


In the later years, he was given over to drinking and women, preferring these to the proper governance of the country, and ignoring almost all the state affairs. His viciousness was beyond measures.


Apart from this, he tried every means to extort money form people, so that countless jewellery and treasure piled up in Lu tai (Shang Zhou’s palace).


Shang Zhou favored a beautiful consort Daji, and committed all manners of e-vil and cruel deeds with her.


His brother Wei Zi tried to persuade him to change, but got rebuked.


His uncle Bi Gan similarly remonstrated with him, but Shang Zhou had his heart ripped out so he could see what the heart of a sage looked like.


When his other brother Ji Zi heard this,feigning madness,he went to remonstrate with the kingly brother but,was imprisoned.


At that time,the Shang Dynasty was in imminent,danger.


When King Wu of the Zhou launched a punitive expedition on Zhou, he was utterly isolated.


With his army changing the side in the war,Shang Zhou fled to the capital,set light to Lutai and committed suicide by burning himself.


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