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用英语说中国历史Chapter8:汉朝-汉武帝加强中央集权(英汉)

lishan 于2015-09-03发布 l 已有人浏览
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用英语说中国历史Chapter8:汉朝-汉武帝加强中央集权,含有中英双语对照阅读。

In 139 B. C. , Emperor Wu Di succeeded to the throne.

公元前139年,汉武帝继位。

His long reign became known as the zenith or highlight of the Western Han period.

武帝时期是西汉发展的鼎盛时期。

The economy flourished, and the state treasury was abundent.

期间经济繁荣、府库充实。

The casting of coins became a state monopoly that was observed by special officials, and the currency was standardized to a nominal face value of five zhu . The most important tax reform was concerning the state monopoly on production, transport and merchandise of salt and iron that was centrally organized by the chamberlain for the national treasury. The transport system was standardized by special regulations, as well as the quality control of the goods. Therefore, the financial revenue increased greatly.

国家统一货币,铸五铢钱,严禁私铸钱;进行税制改革,盐、铁的生产、运输、销售由大司农负责,实行国家专营;实行均输法、平准法,朝廷财政收入大增。

Politics : In politics, Emperor Wudi took further steps to consolidate the centralization. Substantial changes also took place in the structure of the central government that resulted in a new kind of bureaucratic centralism within a state that was officially Confucianist but in fact Legist.

政治方面:武帝进一步采取措施加强中央集权,国家的政治制度发生了实质性变化,形成了新的外儒内法的中央集权的官僚体制。

The emperor reformed the central government and built up his cabinet.

具体包括:“改革中枢体制,建立中朝”。

The status of the Imperial Board of Secretaries was raised, for all the memorials to the throne would be submitted to the emperor by secretariats.

尚书台的地位提升,大臣们的章奏要由尚书进呈皇帝。

This reinforced the autocratic monarchy and stripped power of the prime minister. Meanwhile, the emperor strengthened his control over the local卜 ties.

这一举措加强了王权,削弱了丞相的权力。

He divided the whole country into 13 regions, and appointed an itinerant inspector to each of these divisions to keep a watchful eye on the local affairs.

加强对地方的控制,将全国分为13个州部。每个州部设刺史一人,以监察地方。

Adopting the proposal of Zhu Fuyan, the emperor decreed that when a prince died, his eldest son was to succeed him, and the territory of his principality was to be ed among all his sons. With the exception of the eldest son, each would be granted the status of a marquis, who was subjected to the prefecture.
 

武帝采纳了主父偃的建议,规定诸侯王死后,除嫡长子继承王位外,其他庶子由皇帝分割原王国的部分土地为列侯,列侯归郡统辖。

Consequently, the power of the principalities was split apart without their fiefdoms being taken back by the imperial court, which reinforced the centralization.

这样一来,朝廷虽未剥夺诸侯封地,却成功地分化了诸侯国的权力,进一步加强了中央集权。

Not long after Emperor Wudi * s ascension, Dong Zhongshu proposed the task of the 44 grand unificationof the empire in political philosophy.

汉武帝即位不久,董仲舒提出了“大-统”的政治哲学思想。

Emperor Wudi accepted his suggestion, adopted Confucianism as official philosophy, and denied scholars of all other schools the opportunity to 6nter the civil service. From then on Confucianism became dominant in the middle and late period of the Han Dynasty.

汉武帝采纳了这一建议,实行“罢黜百家,独尊儒术”,从此儒家学说逐步成为西汉中后期的统治思想。

Additionally, the emperor encouraged the study of the five Confucian classics, namely the Book of Odes, Book of Historyy Book of Rites, Book of Changes 〇nd Spring and Autumn Annals. He even set up the imperial academy in Chang • an to teach Confucian classics, cultivate qualified personnel dnd select government officials through regular written examinations.

汉武帝鼓励学习《诗》、《书》、《易》、《礼》、《春秋》等儒家经典,在长安兴办太 学,传授儒家思想,培养人材,并通过考试选拔官吏。

Foreign Policies: On strengthening the autocratic monarchy, Emperor Wudi was also engaged in broadening the Han Dynasty * s relations with the ethnic minorities to an unprecedented extent.

外交政策:在巩固王权地同时,汉武帝还致力发展与少数民族的联系。为此,汉时的民族关系达到到前所未有的程度。

Wars Against the Xiongnu:ln the earlier years of the Han Dynasty, Xiongnu nomads were very powerful. The Han rulers usually adopted a conciliatory attitude towards them. The chief policy to prevent its invasion was to arrange marriages between the royal family and the Xiongnu chieftains to maintain the peace.

抗击匈奴:西汉前期,匈奴势力强大,汉朝主要通过“和亲”政策防范匈奴侵略,维系和平。

However, this had been unsuccessful, and Xiongnu harassed the borders constantly.

可是这一政策并不成功,匈奴-再入侵。

When Emperor Wudi was in the throne, he tried a new tact.

汉武帝即位以后,开始发动对匈奴的战争。

During ten years, namely from the year 128 B. C. to 119 B. C. , the emperor sent Wei Qing and Huo Qubing to launch three large-scale expeditions against Xiongnu. By these actions, he drove them into the far north of Gobi, Desert, thus maintdining the safety of the Hexi Corridor.

从元朔元年(公元前128年)到元狩四年(公元前119年)的10年中,先后三次派卫青、霍去病抗击匈奴,迫使匈奴北徙漠北,确保了河西走廊的安全。

Furthermore, new principalities were established there, and land reclamation was practiced, in which militiamen and their families were settled on military^agri-cultural colonies, where they worked and defended.

汉朝还在西北边地设郡、屯田,修长城,筑烽燧,建邮亭驿。

The Great Wall was reconstructed , which had already served as defensive line against the stepped nomads for a few centuries. Beacon towers and post stations were built, which played a new role in the defence system of the Great Wall.

烽燧和邮亭驿在长城防御体系中发挥了新的重要作用。

The constant wars between the Han and Xiongnu made both sides suffer great losses, having no spare capacity to continue the fight.

汉匈战争不断,双方均损失惨重,无力再战。

In 33 B. C. , Khan Huhanye paid a visit to Chang’an. Emperor Yuan married Wang Zhaojun, a beauty at that time, to him.

公元前33年,呼韩邪单于到长安,汉元帝将宫人王昭君嫁与呼韩邪单于。

This action not only improved the relationship between the Han Dynasty and Xiongnu, but also promoted economic and cultural exchanges between them.

昭君出塞改善了汉、匈之间关系,还促进了两族人民间的经济文化交流。

From then on, the Han and Xiongnu got along well with each other, and wars didn, t break out for more than forty years.

汉、匈从此友好相处,在40多年间没有发生战争。

Zhang Qian on a Diplomatic Mission to the West Regions : At the same time, in order to seek allies to fight against Xiongnu* s invasion, In 138 B. C. , Emperor Wudi sent Zhang Qian as envoy to Dayuezhi, which had originally lived in the area between Dunhuang and Qillan, and was driven to Guishui valley by Xiongnu during the period of Emperor Wendi.

张骞出使西域汉:武帝为反击匈奴,争取联合力量,于建元三年(公元前138 年),派张骞出使大月氏(zhT)。大月氏原居于今敦煌、祁连之间;文帝时期,为匈奴所破,西徙妫(g〇l圭)水(今阿姆河)流域。

Unfortunately, Zhang Qian was captured on his way to Dayuezhi by Xiongnu. He was kept prisoner for more than ten years before managing to escape westward and finally made his way to the destination.

张骞在路上为匈奴所虏,在匈奴十余年,后乘机西逃,到大月氏。

However, Dayuezhi was reluctant to attack Xiongnu, and in 126 B. C. , Zhang Qian returned to Chang*an.

大月氏不愿共击匈奴。公元前126年,张骞返回长安。

In 119 B. C. , Zhang Qian was sent to the West Regions again, inviting Wusun, who were settled in the Yili valley to form a common front to cut the right flank of the Xiongnu.

公元前119年,汉武帝第二次派张骞出使西域,约居于伊犁河流域乌孙共击匈奴,以折匈奴如右翼。

The king of Wusun, who was old, dared not ally with the Han, for his territory was dose to Xiongnu and was subjected to its menace. Zhang Qian failed a second time, but his visits promoted understanding between the Western Han Dynasty and the regions north and south of the Tianshan Mountains, cemented its links with adjacent regions, and helped to spread the influence of the Han Empire.

乌孙王年老,又因箕国临近匈奴,受匈奴的威胁严重,不敢与汉联合,张骞出使未果。尽管如此,张骞出使西域促进了天山南北各少数民族与汉朝的交流,密切了汉与周边地区的联系,使汉朝的影响更为广泛。

More importantly, Zhang Qian1 s westward travels also opened the very important trade route to the Central Asia, which later called Road of Silk.

更为重要的是,张骞出使西域,打通了汉朝通往中亚的贸易通道一丝绸之路。

Many Han commodities like silk and ironware were brought to the west, while spice, grape, woolen carpets, sesame and peaches etc. were introduced to China.

当时运往西方的商品有蚕丝、铁器等。西方经“丝绸之路”输人中国的商品,有香料、葡萄、芝麻、胡 桃、毛毯等。

With his northwest frontier secured, Emperor Wu then expanded the empire in a northeast direction.

在巩固了西北边境后,汉武帝开始向东北方向拓展疆域。

With The capture of an area south of the Yangtze River, the territory of Han far exceed that of the previous dynasties.

攻占长江以南后,汉的领土已大大超过了前朝。

The Han Dynasty then began to expand its political and cultural influence over Vietnam, Central Asia, Mongolia, Korea and other counties.

同时汉朝的政治、文化还对越南、朝鲜、中亚、蒙古等国产生了重要影响。

However, it was no easy task to hold or appease all these far territories, and rebellions and territorial losses occurred many times for the rest of the Han period.

但是对广大边疆地区的统治、平叛却非易事。汉朝中后期,叛乱和疆土流失不断。

At the beginning of Emperor Wudi * s reign the state treasury was full, but when he died, luxury and war campaigns had exhausted.

汉武帝统治前期,国库充盈。但由于挥霍无度加之连年争战,武帝死时,已是国库空虚

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