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Four Quartets [四个四重奏]

所属栏目: Others

点    击: 839

作    者:T.S.Eliot

小说大小:153 KB

推荐等级:2级

整理时间:2010-08-09

内容简介

西方传统的二元论思想是《四个四重奏》的哲学背景,《四个四重奏》呈现了有限与无限、瞬间与永恒、过去与未来、生与死等一系列二元论思想.艾略特的意图是思索解决二元矛盾的途径,从而为拯救人类的时间找到方法.诗人发现耶稣基督"道成肉身"(Incamation)的意义给人类经验和时间提供了最高原则. 耶稣基督"道成肉身"解决了有限和无限的统一、情感和理智的融合、人性和神性的交汇等问题,诗人希望人类能从经验世界中体悟超验世界,从而将经验世界和超验世界融为一体.这一思想在诗歌的文体上也有明显的表现,诗人通过宗教神学式的悖论言语表达、意象的隐喻化和象征化倾向、文体结构的音乐化处理等文体表现方式,强化了诗歌的主题思想.

Four Quartets is a set of four poems written by T. S. Eliot that were published individually over a six-year period. The first poem, "Burnt Norton", was written and published with a collection of his early works following the production of Eliot's play, Murder in the Cathedral. After a few years, Eliot composed the other three poems, and "East Coker", "The Dry Salvages", and "Little Gidding" were written during World War II and the air-raids on Great Britain. The poems were not collected until Eliot's New York publisher printed them together in 1943. They were first published as a series in Great Britain in 1944 towards the end of Eliot's poetic career.

The central focus of the Four Quartets is man's relationship with time, the universe, and the divine. Time is depicted as a binding force that prevents mankind from transcending the boundaries of the material world and hinders them from finding redemption. The overall message of the series is that only through realizing Christ's sacrifice for mankind is an individual capable of being saved. In describing his understanding of the divine with the poems, Eliot blends Christian theology with allusions to Western literature, Eastern texts including the Bhagavad-Gita, and the works of Dante.

Although many critics find the Four Quartets to be Eliot's great last work, some of Eliot's contemporary critics, including George Orwell, were dissatisfied with Eliot's overt religiosity. Later critics disagreed with Orwell's claims about the poems and argued instead that the religious themes made the poem stronger. Overall, reviews of the poem within Great Britain were favourable while reviews in the United States were split between those who liked Eliot's later style and others who felt he abandoned positive aspects of his earlier poetry.

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