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科学美国人60秒双语科学新闻地球篇:地球工程能阻止热浪吗?

Lily85 于2013-04-06发布 l 已有人浏览
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1991年皮纳图博火山喷发时,注入大气的硫粒子冷却了这个星球。科学家们从大自然汲取灵感,开始研究人工向大气释放硫酸盐气溶胶是否会阻止气候变暖。然而这种技术也能
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When Mount Pinatubo erupted in 1991, the injection of sulfur particles into the atmosphere cooled the planet. Taking inspiration from nature, some scientists have begun studying whether a man-made injection of such sulfate aerosols might stave off the worst of global warming. But could the technology also be used more locally to beat the heat?
1991年皮纳图博火山喷发时,注入大气的硫粒子冷却了这个星球。科学家们从大自然汲取灵感,开始研究人工向大气释放硫酸盐气溶胶是否会阻止气候变暖。然而这种技术也能更广泛地应用于对抗炎热吗?

That's the question explored by three U.C.L.A. scientists in a manuscript submitted to the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. Back in 2006, California endured a heat wave that lasted more than two weeks. The scientists ran a computer model to determine whether putting particles 12-kilometers up could cool the Golden State under such conditions.
这是加州大学洛杉矶分校科学家在提交给大气物理化学杂志的手稿上所探索的问题?早在2006年,加州遭遇了持续两个多星期的高温热浪。于是科学家们设计了一个电脑模型,以确定向一万二千米的高空输送硫粒子会不会降低这个黄金州的气温。

The answer appears to be yes. Afternoon temperatures declined significantly in conjunction with the amount of particles boosted to the stratosphere. For example, emitting aerosols at rates of 30 micrograms per meter-squared yielded temperature decreases of roughly 7 degrees Celsius during the hottest part of the day.
结果似乎是肯定的。随着一定数量的粒子进入大气层,当天下午温度急剧下降。例如,当气溶胶的排放速率为三十微克每平方米时,在一天中最热的时候气温下降了大约7摄氏度。

It's unclear how exactly the sulfate aerosols would get to the stratosphere absent a volcanic eruption. There would be effects downwind in the desert Southwest, including potentially even less rain. And the sulfates might eat away at the protective ozone layer.
在没有火山爆发的情况下硫酸盐气溶胶如何到达平流层,这点还尚待解释。而且这也对沙漠西南部顺风有所影响,有可能造成降雨量减少。而且硫可能被臭氧保护层被吸收。

So the researchers suggest that we might want to forestall worse heat waves in the future a different way—by cutting back on the greenhouse gas emissions causing global warming.
因此,研究人员建议我们通过另一种不同的方式——减少温室气体排放,来抵御下一场糟糕的热浪。

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