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科学美国人60秒双语科学新闻科技篇:海洋细菌建立合作性群落

Lily85 于2013-04-06发布 l 已有人浏览
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正如幼儿园老师所说,分享即是关爱。也许她没提到,合作是形成社区的一种好方法,合作能提高每个人的生存机会。据《科学》杂志上一项研究报告显示,人类并不是唯一应用这
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As a kindergarten teacher might say, sharing is caring. She might not mention that cooperation is also a great way to form a community, and thus improve everyone's chances of survival. Humans aren't the only ones to apply this strategy—marine bacteria also form cooperative populations, according to a study in the journal Science.
正如幼儿园老师所说,分享即是关爱。也许她没提到,合作是形成社区的一种好方法,合作能提高每个人的生存机会。据《科学》杂志上一项研究报告显示,人类并不是唯一应用这个战略的物种——海洋细菌同样也是合作性的种群。

Researchers examined the genomes of bacteria belonging to the Vibrionaceae family. In the lab, they grouped together bacteria with similar genetics that coexist in the same micro-habitat. The scientists expected that within any given population, individuals capable of producing antibiotics would use these chemical weapons against others. But when they looked at interactions between different strains of Vibrionaceae, they found that only a few members of any given population could produce the bacteria-killing substances, and the rest of that community was resistant to those particular compounds.
研究人员检查了属于弧菌科的细菌基因。在实验室,他们将共同生活在同一微生物环境里基因相似的细菌组合成一组。科学家估计在任一群落中,能够产生抗生素的个体会利用这种化学武器对抗其他个体。但当他们观察到不同类型的弧菌科细菌之间的互相作用时,发现在任一群落中只有少数的成员可以分泌具有杀菌功效的物质,而剩余细菌则对这种特殊化合物有免疫作用。

But the antibiotics could fight off foreign populations, while leaving members of the home group unharmed. This arrangement implies a bacterial social structure where individuals help the group as a whole. Crayon-hoarding toddlers might want to take note.
然而,在保持自己群落成员安然无恙的同时,抗生素仍可以抵御外来细菌。这样的组合体现了细菌的社会结构,在这里个体担负着保卫全体成员的使命。囤积蜡笔的幼儿可要注意了。

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