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科学美国人60秒双语科学新闻科技篇:让可充电电池重获新生

Lily85 于2013-04-06发布 l 已有人浏览
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有没有想过为什么昂贵的锂离子电池在使用一段时间后就会失效。所有的谜都已解开。现在科学家们知道了镍就是罪魁祸首——在电池生产过程中加入镍会增加电池的容量
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Ever wonder why some expensive lithium ion batteries go dead after a certain number of charges? Mystery solved. Scientists now know the culprit is nickel, which is added during the manufacturing process to increase the battery's capacity.
有没有想过为什么昂贵的锂离子电池在使用一段时间后就会失效。所有的谜都已解开。现在科学家们知道了镍就是罪魁祸首——在电池生产过程中加入镍会增加电池的容量。

At the atomic level, in the many batteries that use lithium-nickel-manganese oxide, the manganese and oxygen atoms form orderly rows. During normal operation, lithium ions zip up and down the empty channels in between the rows to charge or discharge the battery.
在许多含有锂镍锰氧化物的电池里,锰和氧原子形成整齐的序列。在正常操作情况下,锂离子上下来回压缩序列之间的空隙,以使电池充电放电。

Researchers thought that the added nickel atoms were distributed evenly among the rows. However, a team led by scientists at Pacific Northwest National Laboratories has new high-resolution 3-D images that tell a different story. Rather than being evenly distributed, the nickel clumps together and blocks the channels, preventing the flow of ions and keeping the battery from charging. The research is published in the journal Nano Letters.
研究人员认为电池里添加的镍原子均匀分布于锰氧原子序列中。然而,太平洋西北国家实验室的科学家领导的团队拍摄的一组三维高分辨率的图像推翻了这个观点。镍原子聚集并堵塞了空隙,阻止了锂离子运动,从而让电池无法充上电。这项研究发表在《纳米快报》期刊上。

The nickel blockage appears to be a result of the manufacturing process. So identifying and controlling manufacturing conditions may one day make batteries last longer. And keep your current current.
看起来,镍原子堵塞是由于制造过程不精密引起的。因此识别并控制制造条件也许能让电池更持久。并让电流保持畅通。

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