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科学美国人60秒双语科学新闻心理系列篇:提高目击证人辨认嫌疑犯的准确度

Lily85 于2013-04-07发布 l 已有人浏览
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罗纳德·科特因强奸罪被判入狱。受害者从嫌疑犯列队中挑出他来,并确信他是凶手。时隔多年,当这起案子再被翻出来时,她还是认定他是凶手。然而第二拨列队里有真正的强
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Ronald Cotton went to prison for rape. The victim picked him from a lineup convinced she was accurate. She picked him again years later when his case was reopened. This second lineup included the actual rapist. After 11 years behind bars, Cotton was later exonerated by DNA evidence.
罗纳德·科特因强奸罪被判入狱。受害者从嫌疑犯列队中挑出他来,并确信他是凶手。时隔多年,当这起案子再被翻出来时,她还是认定他是凶手。然而第二拨列队里有真正的强奸犯。在监狱服刑11年后,科特被DNA证据证实清白,无罪释放。

Experts say that the current lineup format pressures witnesses to identify a suspect, even when they lack confidence. So researchers are trying to improve the accuracy of such identifications.
专家表示目前这种列队辨认嫌疑犯的方式会给目击者造成压力,即使在不确定的情况下也有压力。因此研究人员试图提高此类辨认的精确度。

One recent study had more than 900 participants watch a short film of a staged crime. Up to a week after watching the film, the viewers looked at photos of suspects one at a time, and rated how confident they were about each one's guilt.
在最近的一项研究中,有900多名参与者观看了事先策划的犯罪短片。过一周让观众看嫌疑犯的照片,一次只看一张,并评价自己有多么确定每个人的罪行。

Half of the participants could take as long as they wanted to look at the photos. The other half had to decide within a few seconds. And the fast group was up to 66 percent more accurate. The study is in the Journal of Psychological Science.
有一半的参与者可以花足够久的时间观察照片。另一半必须在几秒钟内做出决定。后一组辨认罪犯的准确率比前组高出66%。这项研究发表在《心理科学》杂志上。

Strong memories are accessed more quickly than weak memories, which may explain why choosing fast tends to mean choosing right. Another factor that's putting the standard police lineup itself on trial.
人的大脑在读取强烈的记忆时要比微弱的记忆更快,这就解释了为什么快速选择往往意味着更对的选择。

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