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别人告诉你“可能会痛” 最后你会觉得更痛

kira86 于2018-06-11发布 l 已有人浏览
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研究发现,当别人告诉你说“这可能会有点痛”,最后你真的会觉得痛。反之亦然。
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Saying "This May Hurt" May Make It Worse

别人告诉你“可能会痛” 最后你会觉得更痛

Getting a vaccine can be a painful experience, especially when you're a kid. But getting told the shot might "hurt a bit" could actually make it worse.

接种疫苗是一种痛苦的经历,尤其是当你还是个孩子的时候。但是,当注射时被告知“可能会有点痛”,反而会让情况变得更糟。

We know that expectation affects pain experience in adults. But we don't really know whether this is also true for children.

我们知道,预期会影响成年人的疼痛体验。但我们不知道孩子是否也会有这样的情况。

Kalina Michalska, a developmental neuroscientist at the University of California, Riverside. She led a study to find out.

加州大学河滨分校的发展神经学家卡利娜·米歇尔斯加主持了一项研究以找出答案。

The study included 25 adults and 48 children. And 27 of the kids had a pre-existing anxiety disorder. Because medical procedures make pretty much all kids anxious...and those who are anxious to start with tend to find the experience even more painful.

这项研究对象包括25名成年人和48名儿童。其中27个孩子患有先天焦虑症。因为治疗过程几乎让所有的孩子,都感到焦虑,而那些一开始就焦虑的孩子会发现,这种体验更加痛苦。

The researchers used a handheld wand to apply heat to the forearm of each participant. And they asked subjects to rate the temperature in terms of discomfort. The hottest setting was about the temperature of very warm tap water—uncomfortable, perhaps, but not damaging.

研究人员用一根手持式棒,给每个参与者的前臂加热。他们要求实验对象根据不舒服程度来评价体温。最热的设置是很热的自来水的温度,温度可能会有点不舒服,但不会造成伤害。

But during the experiment, we were most interested in only one temperature: the one that each subject rated as medium.

但是在实验过程中,我们最感兴趣的只有一种温度:即每个受试者都认为是中等的温度。

That's where the "anticipation" part of the experiment comes in. Subjects were played one of two tones.

这就是实验用来做“预期”实验的温度。我们播放两种不同的声调(来通知实验对象)。

One tone meant that low heat was coming; the other meant that high heat was upcoming.

一个声调代表要经受的是低热;另一个声调代表要经受的是高温。

But here's the sneaky part. No matter what tone was played, participants got the same heat applied—the one rated as "medium."

但这里就有个狡猾的地方。 不管我们播放得是什么声调,其实实验对象接触的都是同样的热度,也就是之前被所有人评为“中等热度”的温度。

So even though the subject heard a cue indicating high pain or low pain, the pain was only medium.

“所以即使实验对象听到表明剧烈疼痛和轻微疼痛的提示信号,其实都只是中等程度的而已。”

Or at least that's how it should have felt. But what happened was that subjects reported feeling what they thought they would.

或者至少是应该感受到的是这个程度。但是实际情况是,实验对象报告的都是他们认为会感觉到的疼痛的程度(而不是实际感受到的温度)。

If we tell them through this tone that they're going to experience a lot of pain, they'll actually experience more pain: they rated the pain as higher. And conversely, if we tell them that they will experience only low pain, they also rate their experiences as less painful.

“如果我们用这种音调来告诉他们,他们会经历很大的痛苦,他们实际上也会经受更多的疼痛;因为他们心理预计的疼痛程度会高一些。而相反,如果我们告诉他们,只会经历轻微的疼痛,他们就会预计自己不会感觉到那么痛。

This is really important because it kind of reinforces the necessity of not hyping up painful experiences. And also discouraging children from ramping up the experience in their head.

“这一点非常重要,因为它从某种程度上来说,强化了不夸大痛苦程度的必要性。同时也不会让孩子在大脑中强化疼痛体验。”

And the same, it seems, goes for the grownups.

同样的,这似乎对成人也同样有效。

One aspect surprised us, was that all three groups experienced a similar relationship between pain expectation and pain experience. We expected the strongest correlation among anxious children. But however all three groups showed a very large effect of expectancy on their experience of pain.

“其中一点让我们感到惊讶,那就是这三组人经历的预期疼痛和实际疼痛体验之间的关联相似。我们预料到,焦虑儿童所感受的关联会更加强烈。但结果三组人在疼痛体验上,都表现了预期疼痛对实际感受到的疼痛程度有巨大的影响。”

The research is in the journal Psychosomatic Medicine.

这项研究结果发表在《身心医学》杂志上。

Next up, Michalska says she'd like to examine whether negative associations can be unlearned. So next time you need a shot, remember: if you think it won't be so bad, maybe it won't be.

米歇尔斯加说,她接下来的想研究一下这种消极的联想能否被忘记。所以下次你要打针时,请记住:如果你认为它不会很痛,也许就真的会感觉到不那么痛。

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