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鸟喙的形状进化 不仅仅取决于食物

kira86 于2019-06-03发布 l 已有人浏览
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科学家之前一直认为鸟喙的形状与鸟类的食物以及进食方式有关,而研究改变了这一假说,或许有多中因素决定了鸟嘴的进化。
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Bird Beak Shapes Depend on More Than Diet

鸟喙的形状不仅仅取决于食物

The shape of the beaks of different species of Galapagos finches played an important part in Darwin's conception of natural selection.“In our field there is this presumption that the beak shape…in birds is quite correlated with what they eat and how they eat it. So, their feeding ecologies.”

加拉帕戈斯群岛不同雀类的鸟嘴(喙)形状,在达尔文的物竞天择构想中扮演着重要的角色。“在我们的研究领域,有这样一种假说:鸟类的喙形与它们所吃的食物以及进食方式息息相关,即与它们的觅食生态学有关。”

Guillermo Navalón, a PhD student at the University of Bristol in the U.K., and a co-author of a new study that found that the connection between beak shape and diet isn't as tight as we thought. The study is in the journal Evolution.

吉尔莫·纳瓦隆是英国布里斯托尔大学的博士生,也是一项发现喙的形状和饮食之间的联系并不像我们想象的那么紧密的新研究的共同作者。这项研究发表在《进化》杂志上。

Navalón and his colleagues analyzed photographs of museum specimens of 176 bird skulls. They looked at beak shape and size in almost all of the orders of modern birds, and compared the beaks with other factors, such as feeding behavior and body size. And they found that the beak shape was indeed somewhat tied to what birds feed on and how they eat it - but the relationship was actually surprisingly weak, accounting for just 12 percent of beak shape variation.

纳瓦隆和他的同事分析了博物馆176个鸟类头骨标本的照片。他们研究了几乎所有现代鸟类的喙的形状和大小,并将喙与比如进食行为与体型等其它因素进行了比较。他们发现,鸟喙的形状确实在某种程度上与鸟以什么为食以及它们如何进食有关,但这种关联实际上出奇的微弱,只占鸟喙形状变化因素的12%。

“The explanation that we extract from there is that the beaks are basically surrogate hands in the birds. They are used for a plethora of different functions beyond feeding ecology. Like the beak in general in birds have many other functions. So they use it for display, nest construction, singing, thermoregulation in some cases like toucans or like hornbills…so there is like a lot of factors that probably have intervened in the evolution of beaks in birds.”

“我们从中得出的解释是,喙基本上是鸟类的手。手除了被用来进食以外,还有许多其它不同的作用,就如鸟类的喙还有很多其它的功能一般。鸟喙可以用来炫耀筑巢、唱歌,某些鸟类如犀鸟(或称巨嘴鸟)还可以用喙来调节体温,所以可能有很多因素影响了鸟喙的进化。”

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