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婴儿想要公平有正义的监护人和领导者

kira86 于2019-09-10发布 l 已有人浏览
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一项研究称,似乎婴儿生来就对“什么是领导者以及领导者应该如何处世”抱有这样的期望,只不过后来都随着成长环境而改变了。
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Babies Want Fair Leaders

婴儿需要公平有正义的领导者

Anyone who's ever been with a toddler can tell you: if they're upset about something, they will let you know.

任何与蹒跚学步的孩子相处过的人都知道:如果他们因某事不高兴,他们会让你知道的。

(CLIP: Toddlers crying)

(片段:宝宝的哭声)

Scientists have been aware of this behavior, but what they did not know, until now, is that if babies as young as a year and a half old see someone else being treated unfairly, they expect the leader - the parent or caregiver - in that situation to step in and do something about it.

科学家已经意识到这种行为,但是直到现在他们都不知道的是:如果一岁半大的婴儿看到别人受到不公平对待时,他们会期望领导者——可能是家长或看护人能介入,并对此做点什么。

Babies evaluate others constantly.Renée Baillargeon is a psychologist at the University of Illinois. She led the research on babies expecting fairness.

“婴儿会经常评估他人。”伊利诺斯大学的一位心理学家雷尼·拜爱宗表示到。雷尼·拜爱宗领导了这项关于婴儿期望正义的研究。

When these transgressions occur, babies evaluate parents and other leaders and say, ‘Well, you saw this transgression. You know this is not fair. Are you going to do something about it?' And if you don't, then you are shirking your responsibilities, and it makes you less of a leader, less of a parent.

“当这些违法行为发生时,婴儿会评估自己的父母以及其他监护人,还会这么想:‘哼,你看到了这种违法行为。你知道这是不公平的行为,你不打算做点什么吗?’如果你不做点什么,那么你就是在逃避责任,这会让你不配当监护人,不配当家长。”

That's right, babies are judging you. Baillargeon says it seems babies are born with these expectations of what a leader is and how they should behave. The work is in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA.

没错,婴儿在评判你。拜爱宗表示,似乎婴儿生来就对“什么是领导者以及领导者应该如何处世”抱有这样的期望。这项研究发表在《美国国家科学院院刊》上。

The researchers used bear puppets to perform skits for 17-month-old babies, who sat comfortably on a parent's lap.

研究人员用小熊玩偶为安逸地坐在父母腿上的17个月大的婴儿表演滑稽短剧。

In one scenario, the puppet leader intervenes when one of the other puppets hogs all the toys. In another, the leader does nothing to address the injustice. Baillargeon says such inaction that allows an unfair situation to persist bothers the babies, and they stare longer at that leader, as if waiting for him to act. In puppet scenarios when there was no clear leader, babies did not have this expectation of an intervention.

在某一个场景中,当其中一个玩偶霸占了所有的玩具是,玩偶首领介入了;而在另一个场景中,当有玩偶霸占所有的玩具时,玩偶首领没有采取任何措施来解决这种不公平现象。拜爱宗说,这种让不公平的情况继续存在的不作为,会让婴儿们感到不安,他们盯着玩偶首领的时间会更长,好像在等着他们采取行动。而在没有明确领导者的木偶剧中,婴儿就没有这种干预期待。

It shows that they expect a leader to not just use power for his or her own self-interest but to use their authority to regulate the morality of their followers.

“这表明,他们希望领导者不要只为了自己的利益而动用权力,还要用他们的权威来规范追随者的道德。

Alan Fiske, an anthropology professor who studies human relationships at the University of California, Los Angeles. He was not involved in this study. He says many people underestimate what babies are capable of understanding and figuring out about the world, since they're just barely learning how to walk and talk.

艾伦·菲斯克(Alan Fiske)是美国加州大学洛杉矶分校(University of California, Los Angeles)研究人际关系的人类学教授。他没有参与这项研究。他说,许多人只因为婴儿刚刚学会走路和说话便低估他们认识和理解世界的能力。

And so you might think they don't understand the world because, you know, they don't seem to be very competent at doing things in the world. But ... amazing things are happening in their minds. They understand an enormous amount.

“所以你可能会认为他们不了解这个世界,因为他们似乎还不能胜任许多事。但是,他们的脑海中生在发生神奇的事。他们懂得很多。”

Baillargeon says the study supports the idea that babies have an innate understanding about power dynamics that then gets shaped by the culture they grow up in.

拜爱宗表示,这项研究支撑了这样一种观点,即:婴儿对权力动力学(power dynamics)有着天生的理解,但这种理解会受到他们成长环境的影响。

Maybe we should lower the voting age to 17 months?

也许我们应该把投票年龄降低到17个月?

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