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BBC: 人类早期记忆的谜团 为何我们会遗忘幼时经历?

kira86 于2019-09-25发布 l 已有人浏览
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童年期遗忘的谜团过去一个世纪以来一直困惑着科学家们。为什么在人类的幼儿期,一个充满体验和学习新事物的阶段,却被许多难以理解的事物而笼罩?本期BBC《随身英语》
    小E英语欢迎您,请点击播放按钮开始播放……
为何我们会遗忘幼时经历?

The mystery of our earliest memories

人类早期记忆的谜团

What is your earliest memory? For me, I have a hazy recollection of standing in a leafy garden surrounded by silver birch trees when I was four years old.

你最早的记忆是什么?于我自己而言,我模糊记得自己四岁那年站在一颗郁郁葱葱的白桦树下面。

I'm around average: some people remember events as far back as two years old, while for others, things seem patchy until seven or eight.

我这记忆不算早也不算迟:有些人能记得两岁时的事,而还有些人对于七八岁的记忆都有些模糊。

But what is consistent is that no one can remember their own birth or very early infancy. And even after the first memory, most of us only have a sporadic collection of fleeting, flickering mental images until much later in childhood.

但有一点一样的是,没有人能记得自己出生以及婴幼儿时期的事。且不说最早的这段记忆,大多数人只对童年时期存有零零散散且短暂的记忆。

The phenomenon is known as 'childhood amnesia', a term coined by the father of psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud. So, what's going on here?

这种现象被称为“童年期遗忘”。这个术语是精神分析学之父西格蒙德弗洛伊德提出来的。那么,这到底是怎么回事呢?

Babies are, writes Zaria Gorvett for BBC Future, "sponges for new information, forming 700 new neural connections every second and wielding language-learning skills to make the most accomplished polyglot green with envy".

Zaria Gorvett在BBC《未来》频道中的投稿指出,婴儿们能接受新信息,每秒钟会新形成700次神经细胞交流,并且会运用语言习得能力变成让人极度羡慕的通晓多种语言的人。

And it's precisely this rapid mental development that causes the problem, according to a study by the University of Toronto in 2014. It found that the high rate of infant brain cell production could increase forgetfulness, because new cells interfere with existing mental circuits.

而多伦多大学在2014年的研究指出,这样迅速的头脑发育正是问题的关键。研究发现,婴儿脑部细胞的高速发展会助长遗忘,因为新细胞会对现有的记忆造成干扰。

Another possible explanation is that the part of the brain that stores memories, the hippocampus, is not fully formed until around 18 months. Identity is also important: tests show infants don't recognise themselves in the mirror until they are around two years old.

另一种猜测是人类用于存储记忆的脑部海马体要18个月左右才能完全成形。认知也是很重要的:实验表明,2岁以下的婴儿无法认知镜子中的自己。

Finally, there's the question of how accurate our early memories are at all. "People can pick up suggestions and begin to visualise them - they become like memories," psychologist Elizabeth Loftus told the BBC. Are our cherished first memories really just family stories?

最后,还有一个问题,那就是我们的最初记忆到底有多准确?“人们可以挑选收到的建议并将其想象化——这些建议就成了记忆。”心理学家 Elizabeth Loftus对BBC如是说。我们珍贵的最初记忆真的只是和家人相关吗?

 

词汇表

hazy

模糊的、不清晰的

recollection

记忆,往事

silver birch

白桦树

patchy

零零碎碎的,拼凑起来的

infancy

婴儿期、年幼时候

sporadic

零星的,分散的

fleeting

一闪而过的,短暂的

amnesia

失忆,健忘(症)

to coin

创造,杜撰(新词或表达)

psychoanalysis

精神分析学

sponge

像海绵般地吸收(信息)

neural

神经的

to wield

施加影响

accomplished

有造诣的,有才华的

polyglot

通晓多种语言的人

green with envy

非常羡慕,十分忌妒

forgetfulness

健忘

to interfere

干预,干涉

to visualise

设想,想象

cherished

珍惜的,珍爱的

小e英语lu翻译!

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