You've probably heard that weather is getting more extreme and that this is in part because accumulating greenhouse gases have caused the air at earth's surface to warm by an average of 0.8 degrees celsius over the last century.
你大概听说过全球气候正在极端化，原因之一就是温室气体的不断累积 自上个世纪以来 地表温度平均升高了0.8摄氏度。
But how could a barely perceptible rise in air temperature lead to such crazy changes in weather?Well,that air temperature rise actually only amounts to 1% of the extra energy absorbed by earth's atmosphere over the last century a few percent has been absorbed by land and almost all the rest has been soaked up by the oceans.
这几乎察觉不到的气温升高 是如何造成气候的剧烈变化？嘛 气温上升事实上只相当于 上个世纪地球大气吸收的额外能量的1% 这些能量少部分被大地吸收 剩下的几乎全部被海洋吸收了。
That increase in ocean heat content is the energy equivalent of an atomic bomb exploding every second for the last 100 years.And THAT matters because heat stored in the oceans has a big impact on the weather.For one,the warmer the water at the surface gets,the more of it vaporizes into the air.At the same time,every degree increase in air temperature raises the air's capacity to hold water vapor by about 7 percent.
海洋热含量的增加程度 相当于过去100年每秒一颗原子弹在海里爆炸的总当量。其严重性在于 海洋中存储的热量对气候造成了极大的影响。首先 水面的温度越高，蒸发至空气里的量就越大。与此同时，气温每增高1摄氏度 空气的水蒸气容量就增加7%。
This means parcels of air out over the ocean are picking up more water than they used to,which leads to heavier rains and snows.Meanwhile,warmer land surfaces mean parcels of air over land are also picking up more water than they used to,making dry places drier and droughts harsher.
也就是说 海面的每处空气 所含的水分都高于常态，这会导致暴雨和暴雪。同时 升温的地表意味着 地表上方的空气中所含水分也高于常态，这会导致干燥的地方更加干燥 干旱更严重。
Warmer oceans also make concentrated hot spots on the ocean's surface even hotter.These areas of high sea surface temperatures have always helped drive the biggest storms and floods,including,in recent years,both Hurricane Sandy and super-typhoon Haiyan.
We don't yet know for sure whether warming oceans are producing a greater number of these storms,but it's basic physics that more heat in the oceans gives these kinds of storms significantly more energy and destructive power when they do happen.So if you've heard that the world's weather has been getting more extreme,it's not just a lot of air.It's also a bunch of warm water.
虽然我们还无法确定 众多此类暴风的形成是否确为海洋温度增高所导致，但基础物理告诉我们 当暴风形成时 海洋温度越高 暴风的能量会显著增高 破坏力显著增大。所以说 如果有人告诉你世界气候变得越加严峻，这不仅仅是热空气的错。还跟水温增高有关。