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美国“恶魔岛”、与犯罪有关的音乐和一个博物馆

kira86 于2008-06-20发布 l 已有人浏览
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Each Year, a Million People Escape to Alcatraz Island 迅雷专用高速下载 HOST: Welcome to AMERICAN MOSAIC in VOA
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Each Year, a Million People Escape to Alcatraz Island


迅雷专用高速下载

HOST:

Welcome to AMERICAN MOSAIC in VOA Special English.

(MUSIC)

I’m Doug Johnson.

On our program today, we play some songs about doing crime and  doing time (服徒刑)…

Answer a question about a famous former prison on an island in the San Francisco Bay in California …

And visit the new crime museum in Washington, D.C.

(MUSIC)

National Museum of Crime and Punishment

知识扩展:国立『罪与罚』博物馆(National Museum of Crime and Punishment)

这个博物馆与俄国大文豪陀思妥耶夫斯基的《罪与罚》"Crime and Punishment"一点关系也没有,这是一个宣扬好人好事,贬抑犯罪的博物馆,展示的是美国人最津津乐道的一段历史---对抗犯罪。

这个刚在华盛顿开幕的博物馆主要展示的不是那个恶名昭彰的坏人或骇人听闻的犯罪事件,主角是那些代表正义对抗犯罪的好人。这里的英雄当然不是蝙蝠侠、超人,甚至印第安那琼斯的那种神人,而是在社会里维护正义保卫和平的警官探长们。

从现在开始每个月America's Most Wanted这个网站将会播放一则好人对抗罪犯的故事。每个罪与罚博物馆的游客都会拿到一份小传单,上面将会简介美国从殖民地至今的漫长历史中医则关于罪与罚的历史事件,民众得以亲眼看到这些英雄的长相,而不是从影集CSI上认识犯罪侦查。

当然这里也有关于犯罪的战士,美国禁酒令时代著名的黑帮教父艾尔.卡彭(Al Capone)被捕后监禁与东方州立监狱(Eastern State Penitentiary),在这里就有战士一个当时艾尔.卡彭监禁牢房的复制品,还有一些关于刑具的展示,例如电椅。最主要的目的还是要传达犯罪需要承担的惩罚,呈现『罪』与『罚』这个二元概念。

HOST:

The National Museum of Crime and Punishment opened recently in Washington, D.C. It shows an interesting part of American history. We have more from Faith Lapidus.

FAITH LAPIDUS:

The museum exhibits are separated into different time periods in America. For example, the Great Depression in the early nineteen thirties was a very difficult period. During this time, Bonnie Parker and Clyde Barrow became famous for stealing from stores and banks and killing police officers in several states. Police officers finally shot and killed them in their car along a highway in Louisiana in nineteen thirty-four.

Bonnie and Clyde influenced popular culture over time because of their loyalty to one another. There are many songs and movies about them. In the museum, you can see a copy of their car with many bullet holes. There is also a bullet from their real car, as well as a piece of glass from a window.

One of the most famous criminals in American history was active during the nineteen twenties. Al Capone was often called “Scarface.”  He was the head of a criminal group in Chicago, Illinois. He became known as “Public Enemy Number One.” Capone was involved in many illegal activities as well as murder.  He finally was sent to jail for not paying income taxes in nineteen thirty-one.  He lived a wealthy life, which you can see in the jail cell recreated to look like the one Capone occupied when he was in prison.

Al Capone lives on in many movies, as well as on television and in books. “Scarface” is one famous film based on his life. The museum shows the gun that was used in the movie.

Part of the museum tells about unsolved murders in which the killer has never been found. These are called "cold cases." Two of the most recent are the murders of rap performers Tupac Shakur and Notorious B.I.G. They were shot and killed while in their cars in the late nineteen nineties.

One part of the National Museum of Crime and Punishment is about solving crimes. People can try to solve a "murder." A false dead body, drugs, and weapons are all part of the case.

You can learn about toxicology reports, which show what chemicals were in a person’s body when he or she died. You can also learn how a person's face can be recreated with a computer or with clay. Most importantly, learning about crime can help you protect yourself from it.

Alcatraz Island(恶魔岛)

知识扩展:“恶魔岛”是旧金山最著名的旅游景点之一;该岛上的监狱每年大约吸引140万游客前来参观。不过由于近年来许多大片以及小说都对该岛进行过描写,美国国家公园管理局却更加热衷于让游客们对未开放的4.9万平方米(12英亩)小岛“一探究竟”。

“恶魔岛”在1861年美国南北战争期间用作军事监狱,并在1933年到1963年的30年时间里用作美国联邦监狱。美国官方层一度对外界表示,由于该岛周围被冰冷的水包围并且有强大的潮汐,因此要想从该岛逃脱几乎不可能,并且也从未有罪犯从该岛成功逃脱。

据悉,“恶魔岛”曾多次出现在美国大片中,其中包括影星克林特·伊斯特伍德在1979年主演的《逃出阿尔卡特拉斯》以及影星肖恩·康纳利和尼古拉斯·凯奇在1996年主演的影片《勇创夺命岛》。

HOST:

While we are on the subject of crime, our listener question this week comes from Mohamad Firouzi in Iran. He wants to know about the history of Alcatraz Island and the prison that once operated there.
Alcatraz Island is in the harbor of San Francisco, California. It is best known for being a federal prison, which was also called “The Rock.” It was once the most famous prison in America.

Alcatraz was a military prison from the late eighteen fifties until the nineteen thirties. Then it became a federal prison for the country’s worst criminals. These included murderers, bank robbers and kidnappers. One of the main reasons federal officials chose Alcatraz Island to detain these prisoners was because they thought it would be impossible for prisoners to escape.

Cold, deep and dangerous waters surround the island. Also, the distance between the island and San Francisco is too far for most humans to swim. No prisoner was ever officially reported to have successfully escaped.

However, in nineteen sixty-two, three men broke out of the prison. Each man worked very hard at night for many months to cut through the stone wall of his cell. They made false heads out of paper, paint and hair. On the night of June eleventh, the men placed the heads in their beds to make it look as if they were sleeping. Then, the prisoners escaped through the holes in their cells to get to the water. The men were never seen or heard from again. It is believed that they drowned while trying to swim to San Francisco.

The prison closed in nineteen sixty-three because of the high cost of keeping prisoners there and the need for major repairs. The last prisoners were moved to other jails.

In nineteen seventy-two, the United States Congress passed a bill creating the Golden Gate National Recreation Area. Alcatraz Island and the old prison are part of this area.

Each year, more than one million people visit Alcatraz to see the prisoners’ cells and listen to stories about the jail’s history. But unlike the prisoners who once lived there, visitors can escape from the prison whenever they want and return back across the harbor to San Francisco.

Music About Crime and Punishment

知识扩展:美国民谣的传奇人物Leadbelly

美国民谣的传奇人物Leadbelly在1885年生于路易斯安那州。他从小随着家人学到了弹吉 他的技术,并为舞蹈和街头表演陪奏风琴。在30年代到40年代,Leadbelly陆续为民歌档案处和东部的民歌唱片公司录制了上百个样带(包括蓝调、民谣、舞曲以及黑人民歌),都是由他那把十二弦吉他伴奏的。虽然他是美国民谣音乐的开创者,但是他于1949年死时却相当穷困潦倒。他的少年时代也同当地的许多黑人一样,是在穷困潦倒中度过的。1917年,他在一次囚徒暴动中,因杀人罪而被判处30年徒刑。阴暗的牢狱生活一直延续到 30年代末,才由Lomax兄弟给它画上句号。当时的Lomax兄弟正在南方作他们的棉田旅行和监狱采风,以记录和收集黑人民间音乐中的典型元素。他们用原始的录音设备录下了Leadbelly粗哑的演唱和粗犷的吉它弹奏。这些录音被制成唱片,后来成了“House of the Rising Sun” 、“Midnight Speci al” 、 “John Haudy”和“Goodnight Ivene”等歌曲的原型。

HOST:

We end our program with some music about crime and punishment. Pat Bodnar plays a few popular and historical songs, like this one, “The Midnight Special.” It was made famous by the folk and blues musician, and former prisoner, Lead Belly, in the nineteen thirties.
(MUSIC)

PAT BODNAR:

Many crime songs are about murder. But often the killer is a sympathetic character like “Janie” in the Aerosmith song, “Janie’s Got a Gun.”

(MUSIC)

Many songs are about famous criminals. “The Night Chicago Died” was released in nineteen seventy-four by a British band called Paper Lace. It is about the famous Chicago crime gang leader Al Capone and an imaginary gun battle in that city.

(MUSIC)

This next song was first recorded by the Crickets in nineteen fifty-nine. Its message is clear: crime does not pay. Here the British band, the Clash, performs its hit version of “I Fought the Law.”

(MUSIC)

Finally, we leave you with a famous prison song.  Here is the Johnny Cash performing his song, “Folsom Prison Blues.”

(MUSIC)

HOST:

I'm Doug Johnson. I hope you enjoyed our program today.

It was written by Elizabeth Stern and Caty Weaver who were also our producers. To read the text of this program and download audio, go to our Web site, 51voa.com.

Send your questions about American life to mosaic@voanews.com. And please include your full name and where you are from. Or write to American Mosaic, VOA Special English, Washington, D.C., two-zero-two-three-seven, U.S.A.

Join us again next week for AMERICAN MOSAIC, VOA’s radio magazine in Special English.

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