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美国著名哲学家、教育家约翰·杜威John Dewey

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John Dewey, 1859-1952: Educator and 'America's Philosopher'高速下载 This is the VOA Special English Education
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John Dewey, 1859-1952: Educator and 'America's Philosopher'


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This is the VOA Special English Education Report.

We have a question from China. Feng Tianqiang says "I want to know something about John Dewey."

John Dewey was an influential thinker and educator. The New York Times once called him "America's philosopher."

Larry Hickman is director of the Center for Dewey Studies at Southern Illinois University, Carbondale. He was not surprised that the question came from China.

LARRY HICKMAN: "I just returned from two weeks of meetings in Beijing in December. And among the conversations I had with my Chinese colleagues was the very close relationship between Dewey's ideas and those of Confucius. I also worked with a group of lay Buddhists who like Dewey's work very much because it is very comfortable with some of the ideas of Mahayana Buddhism."

Dewey described his ideas in books including "Democracy and Education," "The School and Society" and "How We Think."

LARRY HICKMAN: "Dewey was perhaps the best known philosopher, educator and public intellectual of the twentieth century. He was active in many fields, including education, philosophy, psychology and also humanistic and humanitarian affairs. He was an important influence in the founding of the American Association of University Professors and the American Civil Liberties Union."

He was also influential in the founding of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, though he himself was white.

John Dewey was born in Burlington, Vermont, in eighteen fifty-nine. He was influenced by the scientific work of Charles Darwin. He was also influenced by the work done with immigrant English learners in Chicago by Jane Addams. She was a social worker and the first American woman to win the Nobel Peace Prize. And Dewey was influenced by observing his own children.

At the University of Chicago, he founded the Laboratory School. Chemistry courses have labs. Why not a place to experiment with education? But Dewey would likely have disagreed with many current practices in American education, like the wide use of standardized testing.

LARRY HICKMAN: "He thought that testing had its place, but that testing should be more like medical tests. That is, they should be testing for individual needs, interests, abilities, and not to compare one student to another. As Dewey put it, the relation of the abilities of one student to another is none of the teacher's business."

John Dewey died in nineteen fifty-two. But Dewey scholar Larry Hickman says his ideas are still being taught in education schools.

In fact, last year was his one hundred fiftieth birthday, so it was a busy year for Dewey studies. Celebrations took place not only in the United States, but also at two universities in Beijing and in Croatia, Italy and Poland.

And that's the VOA Special English Education Report, written by Nancy Steinbach. For a link to more on John Dewey, go to en8848.com. I'm Steve Ember.

约翰·杜威(John Dewey,1859—1952),美国著名哲学家、教育家,实用主义哲学的创始人之一,功能心理学的先驱,美国进步主义教育运动的代表。出生在佛蒙特州柏林顿市附近的农村,祖先三代都是佛蒙特州的农民。柏林顿市人口近一万五千人,其中约半数为本地人,半数来自爱尔兰和魁北克。本地出生的人包括在佛蒙特州或新英格兰其他地方居住很久的盎格鲁撒克逊中产阶级新教徒家庭的后裔。杜威就是在这样一个群体的传统中成长起来的。
  杜威在柏林顿市上公立学校,毕业后入本地的佛蒙特大学。大学第四年,他学习了基本的政治、经济、哲学和宗教理论,并产生了浓厚的兴趣。大学毕业后,在中学任教三年。1882年进霍布金斯大学攻读哲学。受到来自密歇根大学客座教授、新黑格尔主义的主要倡导者莫理斯和19世纪德国哲学家黑格尔思想复兴的影响。他发现,这个哲学强调宇宙的精神的和有机的性质,正是他一直在模糊地探索着的东西,他热切地信奉这个哲学。

  1884年,杜威获得霍布金斯大学哲学博士学位。同年秋,受聘为密歇根大学哲学和心理学讲师。除1888~1889年曾在明尼苏达大学任哲学教授以外,杜威在密歇根工作了十年。在此期间,他主要致力于黑格尔和英国新黑格尔主义哲学研究,对霍尔与詹姆斯在美国提出的新实验生理心理学进行了深入研究。

  杜威对教育的兴趣始于在密歇根的年代。他发现多数学校正沿着早先的传统路线进行,没有适应儿童心理学的最新发现和变革中的民主社会秩序的需要。寻找一种能补救这些缺陷的教育哲学,成了杜威主要关切的事情。

  1894年,他离开密歇根,任芝加哥大学哲学教授,哲学、心理学和教育学系主任。他在芝加哥的成就使他获得全国的名望。进化论的生物学和心理学在他的思想中越来越占优势,导致他抛弃黑格尔的理论,接受工具主义的认识论。他和同事的论文集《逻辑学理论研究》(1903)的发表,宣告一个新的哲学学派—— 芝加哥学派的诞生。詹姆斯热情地为这本书欢呼。他在1896年创办的芝加哥大学实验学校,使他的教育理论和实践得到检验,吸引了国内外广泛的注意。

  1904年,由于对大学的教育计划管理和财务方面的意见和芝加哥大学校长不一致,改任哥伦比亚大学哲学教授。他和哥伦比亚的联系达47年之久,先是任哲学教授,后任哲学退休教授。在任教的25年中,吸引了国内外成千上万的学生,成为美国最闻名和最有影响的教师之一。他的学术著作甚丰,仅目录就达125页。他的思想涵盖逻辑学、认识论、心理学、教育学、社会哲学、美术和宗教。杜威于1919年来华讲学,传播实用主义教育思想。他还访问过日本、土耳其、墨西哥、苏联和南非。他的主要教育著作有: 《心理学中的反射弧概念》(1896)、《我的教育信条》My Pedagogic Creed(1897)、《学校和社会》(1899)、《儿童与课程》(1902)、《民主主义与教育》The democratic conception in education(1916)、《明日之学校》(1915)、《经验与教育》(1938)和《人的问题》(1946)等。

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