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“低体温症”:冻死人真不是传说

kira86 于2009-12-31发布 l 已有人浏览
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Slow and Gentle Are Best in Treating Hypothermia高速下载 This is the VOA Special English Health Report.We talk
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Slow and Gentle Are Best in Treating Hypothermia


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This is the VOA Special English Health Report.

We talked last week about ways to avoid cold-weather injuries. Today we are going to talk about emergency treatment of hypothermia.

Hypothermia can be mild, moderate or severe. Mild hypothermia is something that most people have experienced if they live in cold climates. You feel so cold that your body starts to shake -- not very much, but uncontrollably.

The treatment for mild hypothermia starts with getting out of the cold and, if necessary, changing into dry clothes. Drinking warm, non-alcoholic liquids and eating something sugary can stop the shivering.

Taking a warm bath or sitting by a fire or doing some exercise can also help the body warm up. These are all common sense treatments.

But treatment needs change when people enter the moderate or severe stages of hypothermia. In that situation, their body temperature drops below thirty-five degrees Celsius. They lose the ability to think clearly. Their muscles become stiff. They might bump into things or fall over objects.

We got advice from a park ranger experienced in search-and-rescue for the National Park Service in California. Adrienne Freeman explained that rescuers will first try to prevent additional heat loss. They will place extra covering around the chest, head and neck of hypothermia victims to keep them warm.

It is important to work fast to get people out of the cold. Hypothermia victims need medical help as soon as possible. But it is equally important to move them slowly and gently.

Any rough or sudden movement can force cold blood from the arms, legs and hands deep into the warmer middle of the body. The sudden flow of cold blood can create shock, a serious condition. It can also cause a dangerously abnormal heartbeat.

The process of "rewarming" a person needs to be done slowly, in a hospital setting. Ranger Freeman said members of search-and-rescue teams have a saying that victims are not dead until they are warm and dead.

An extremely low body temperature can cause the heart to beat so slowly that a pulse may be difficult to find. In other words, a person who is suffering from the effects of severe cold may seem dead, but still be alive.

And that's the VOA Special English Health Report, written by Caty Weaver. If you missed last week's advice about how to avoid cold-weather injuries, you can find it aten8848.com. And you can follow us on Twitter and YouTube at VOA Learning English. I'm Steve Ember.

什么是低温症,它是如何造成的

  “低体温症”发病的原因主要是因为有些人体内产热少,体温调节功能差,在寒冷环境中从皮肤丢失的热量多,不能使体温保持在一定的水平上。特别是老年人和婴儿,对温度的变化不那么敏感,有时即使室温相当低,也可能感觉不到,因而保温防护能力差。当体温下降到35℃以下时,就会发生“低体温症”。
  严重的“低体温症”常有意识障碍、颈项强直、血压下降、心动过缓或心律不齐。有人统计,60岁以上的老人在气候特别寒冷的冬季,死亡率要比一般冬季高60%,其中“低体温症”是一个重要因素。
  预防低体温症,要有温暖的居室、柔软御寒的床铺和衣服。
  人的正常体温是37℃。低体温症是受害者的核心温度下落到35℃度以下.如果体温下跌在32℃以下,情况会变得严重并最终致命。相反情况, 温度太高的是hyperthermia(过高热症)。
  关于人的体温,有两个相反的因素相互作用。低温,大风,和湿的内衣使人寒冷。只有运动和颤抖可以使身体产生热量。衣服,避风所,和脂肪层可以防止热量散发,但不会生成热量。
  出汗通过蒸发而降低体温。寒冷时的颤抖通过增加肌肉活动所需的化学反应而生成热量。颤抖最多能增加达500%的体表热量生成,但只能在几个小时内有效,因为最终会导致肌肉的葡萄糖过度减少和疲劳。
  在寒冷且大风的山上,体力透支的运动后,天黑降温,穿着湿的内衣,如果是全棉内衣且服装不够保暖,又没有帽子和手套,躺下后不再运动,此时制热和保温的因素长时间小于散热的因素,就可能导致低体温症。
  户外遭遇的低体温症(hypothermia,也译成低温症,失温症),通俗的讲可以说是逐渐地或突发地(落水)冻死的过程。与冻伤的区别是:在寒冷的野外如果仍有移动能力,在移到安全处的过程中可能遭遇冻伤。在寒冷的野外失去移动能力时,会遭遇低体温症,最坏的最后结果是冻死。

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