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调查:发展中国家孕产妇死亡率下降

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Study Finds Drop in Deaths of Mothers in Developing World高速下载 This is the VOA Special English Health Repor
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Study Finds Drop in Deaths of Mothers in Developing World


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This is the VOA Special English Health Report.

A new study says fewer women in developing nations are dying of pregnancy-related causes. Researchers estimated how many mothers died during or soon after childbirth in one hundred eighty-one countries. They found a drop of more than thirty-five percent worldwide in the past thirty years.

By their count, the number fell from more than a half-million in nineteen eighty to about three hundred forty-three thousand in two thousand eight. That year, about two hundred fifty mothers died for every one hundred thousand live births worldwide.

The researchers say the maternal death rate has been falling almost one and a half percent a year since nineteen ninety. Earlier reports suggested little change between nineteen eighty and nineteen ninety, but the new study disputes that.

The researchers used government records, medical records, surveys and other information. They developed new methods to get what they say are the best estimates yet for almost every country.

They say the progress is a result of greater efforts to reduce maternal deaths.

Christopher Murray at the University of Washington's Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation in Seattle led the study. He says more education of women in developing countries has helped lower maternal death rates. More of them are giving birth in hospitals.

Doctor Murray says lower fertility rates around the world, combined with higher earnings, are also reducing deaths.

The nations found to have the biggest reductions were Egypt, Ecuador and Bolivia. The researchers say China also had a sharp drop.

But since nineteen ninety maternal death rates have risen in some countries. Zimbabwe, for example, had a five and one-half percent increase per year. Afghanistan, India, Pakistan, Nigeria, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Ethiopia also had increases.

H.I.V. has slowed the progress in reducing maternal deaths. The study linked almost one in every five such deaths in two thousand eight to the virus that causes AIDS.

The researchers say maternal deaths rates have also increased in some wealthy countries. They found the number in the United States rose almost forty-two percent since nineteen ninety. Countries such as Canada and Norway also had increases. Doctor Murray says at least part of the increase is likely the result of better record keeping.

The study also included the University of Queensland in Australia. The report is in the Lancet.

And that's the VOA Special English Health Report. I'm Steve Ember.

相关保健知识:

新华网华盛顿4月13日专电世界卫生组织13日发布报告说,全球数百万产妇和新生儿的死亡可以通过勤洗手、注射疫苗和使用卫生器具等简单方法而避免。

    据估计,全球每年有30万至50万妇女因生产而死亡,360万新生儿在出生一个月内死亡,另有520万儿童在5岁前夭折。根据这份报告,约82%的死亡发生在撒哈拉以南非洲和南亚地区。

    这份报告由隶属于世界卫生组织的产妇、新生儿和儿童卫生合作组织发布。报告指出,贫穷是一些国家产妇和婴儿死亡率居高的主要原因,但其他原因还包括感染、早产、难产和不安全堕胎等,在某些国家疟疾和艾滋病也是主要原因。某些地区的民俗传统也增加了死亡风险,比如在南亚的偏远山村,生孩子被认为是肮脏的,女人必须在牛棚里生育、坐月子。

    报告参与者之一乔伊·朗说,通过使用洁净工具剪脐带、使用抗生素治疗感染等简单方法,每年全球就可有300万新生儿能免于死亡。

    医学界最权威的学术刊物之一《柳叶刀》12日刊登的一份调查显示,从1980年到2008年,181个国家的产妇死亡率平均降低了35%。全球一半以上的产妇死亡发生在印度、阿富汗、埃塞俄比亚和刚果(金)等6个国家。此外,虽然很多国家在降低儿童死亡率方面取得进步,但39个国家的进步过小,且有18个国家没有取得任何进步甚至儿童死亡率不降反升。

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