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VOA健康报道:世界上最健康的饮食方式是什么

kira86 于2018-03-29发布 l 已有人浏览
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美国之音的健康和生活方式报道,揭开地中海、日本冲绳岛、北欧和法国人长寿的秘密。
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What are the Healthiest Diets in the World?

世界上最健康的饮食方式是什么

From VOA Learning English this is the Health and Lifestyle report.

这里是来自美国之音的健康和生活方式报道。

We are what we eat. That is an old expression, but one worth knowing. A recent look at diets around the world shows that people who eat healthy food -- and not too much of it -- live longer.

我们吃什么就长得像什么。这是一个古老的表达,但值得了解。最近一项对世界各地的饮食情况研究表明,吃健康食品的人 - 前提是别吃过量- 会活得更久。

But which areas of the world have the best diets? The Lancet Global Health medical journal has published findings on whose diets are the best. Researchers studied the dietary quality of people in 187 countries from 1990 to 2010. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and Medical Research Council supported this study.

但世界上哪些地区的饮食最健康?“柳叶刀全球健康”医学杂志发表了关于哪里的饮食最好的调查结果。研究人员研究了187个国家人群从1990年到2010年的饮食质量。The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and Medical Research Council supported this study.比尔和梅林达盖茨基金会和医学研究委员会支持了这项研究。

It found that foods found in some of the healthiest diets -- Mediterranean, New Nordic, French and Japanese -- may be very different, but they do have things in common. They are all heavy on local, seasonal foods and limit processed foods. They are high in vegetables and seafood and low in red meat.

研究发现,在一些最健康的饮食中发现的食物可能会有很大的不同,但它们确实有共同之处,比如地中海,新北欧,法国和日本。他们都看重于当地时令食品,限制加工食品。他们的饮食中蔬菜和海鲜占比较高,红肉占比较低。

Mediterranean

地中海

Many studies have been done on the health benefits of the Mediterranean diet. This diet has lots of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts and olive oil.

对地中海饮食的健康益处进行了许多研究。地中海饮食结构包含水果,蔬菜,全谷物,坚果和橄榄油。

The diet has moderate amounts of fish and poultry. Red meat and foods high in sugar and salt are not big parts of this diet.

饮食中含有适量的鱼和家禽。红肉和富含糖和盐的食物不是这种饮食的重要组成部分。

New Nordic diet

北欧饮食

Scientists and food experts from five Nordic countries borrowed ideas from the Mediterranean diet to develop a new, healthier regional diet. This New Nordic diet has whole grains cereals like oats and rye, vegetables such as Brussels sprouts, broccoli and beets, eggs, seafood, fruits, oil, low-fat milk and cheese.

来自五个北欧国家的科学家和食品专家借鉴了地中海饮食的想法,开发出了一种新的,更健康的区域饮食。种新的北欧饮食包括全麦谷类食物,如燕麦和黑麦,蔬菜如布鲁塞尔芽菜,西兰花和甜菜,鸡蛋,海鲜,水果,油,低脂牛奶和奶酪。

Olive oil is a common part of the Mediterranean diet. The New Nordic diet uses rapeseed oil instead. Very sugary desserts are not common in this diet.

橄榄油是地中海饮食中最常见的一部分。而新的北欧饮食使用菜籽油代替。在这种饮食结构中,过甜的甜品并不常见。

And the New Nordic diet suggests cooking food at a lower temperature. Techniques such as baking and boiling help foods keep more of their nutritional value.

新北欧饮食建议:低温烹调食物。烘培和沸煮等烹调方法,可以帮助食物保持更多的营养价值。

Japan

日本

The World Health Organization says that Japanese people are some of the longest-living people on the planet. The life expectancy there is 87 years old for women and 80 for men.

世界卫生组织说,日本人是这个地球上寿命最长的人群之一。女性的预期寿命为87岁,男性为80岁。

Researchers believe the Japanese diet is the reason for such long lifespans. The diet has many foods that are low in calories and high in nutrients. Japanese people eat a lot of seaweed, tofu, miso soup, rice, vegetables and fish.

研究人员认为日本人的饮食习惯是日本人都长寿的原因。其饮食中富含低卡路里和高营养的食物。海带,豆腐,味噌汤,米饭,蔬菜和鱼,日本人吃得比较多。

People on the island of Okinawa live especially long. And local food traditions may help explain why. For example, the tradition there is to stop eating when your stomach feels 80 percent full. The Okinawan diet is also especially heavy on nutrient-rich vegetables.

冲绳岛上的人们活得特别长。当地的饮食传统大概可以解释这一点。比如,按照饮食习惯,当地人吃到8分饱,就会停止进食。冲绳饮食还特别看重营养丰富的蔬菜。

While food habits on Okinawa may be changing, the island is still home to many people over 100 years of age. Researchers suggest this may be from eating fewer calories over a long period of time.

尽管冲绳的饮食习惯可能会发生变化,但岛上仍然有许多100岁以上的人。研究人员认为,这可能是由于当地人长期卡路里摄入偏少的原因。

The French paradox

法国悖论

However, French people eat fatty foods but do not get fat. And they live a long time. Researchers call this the "French Paradox." A paradox is something made up of opposites and seems impossible but it is, in fact, possible.

然而, 法国人吃油腻的食物却不发胖。而且他们也长寿。研究人员称之为“法国悖论”。矛盾是由对立面组成的,这似乎是不可能的,但实际上这是可能的。

The reason why the French eat fatty foods without getting fat may be simple. They eat less. Serving sizes in French restaurants and in products sold in stores are smaller than those in the United States. And generally speaking, most French people do not snack. This means they do not eat food between meals.

法国人吃油腻食物而不发胖的原因可能很简单。他们吃得少。法国餐馆和商店出售的产品的规格都比美国小。一般来说, 大多数法国人不吃零食。这意味着他们在两餐之间不吃东西。

Problems with the American diet

美国饮食问题

Americans are eating too many bad foods, and not enough nutritious foods. Some of the foods Americans love the most are the worst for them. These include sugary drinks, salty foods, and processed meat such as bacon and hot dogs.

美国人吃太多垃圾食品,没有摄入足够的营养食品。美国人最爱吃的某些食物,是最糟糕的垃圾食品。比如:含糖量很高的饮料、过咸的食品和加工肉类, 如熏肉和热狗。

And Americans are not eating enough healthy foods to increase their chances of living longer.

美国人没有吃足够的健康食品,来增加他们保持长寿的机会。

That is the message from researchers at Tufts University in the state of Massachusetts. Their 2017 study includes a nationwide look at people's eating habits. They found that about half of all U.S. deaths from heart disease, stroke and Type 2 diabetes are from a poor diet.

这是马萨诸塞州的塔夫茨大学研究人员提供的信息。他们在2017做了这项在全国范围内观察人们的饮食习惯的研究。他们发现,一大半死于心脏病,中风和2型糖尿病的美国人都是由于饮食不当。

The lead author of this study is Renata Micha and the senior author is Dariush Mozaffarian. They published their findings in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA).

本研究的主要作者是雷娜塔迈克, 资深作者是 Dariush Mozaffarian。他们在美国医学协会杂志(JAMA)上发表了他们的这一研究结果。

The study found that most Americans do not eat the recommended amounts of "good" foods – such as fruit and vegetables, seafood, whole grains, seeds and nuts. Nuts, for example, contain healthy fats that can help raise good cholesterol levels.

研究发现,大多数美国人没吃足“推荐量”的“好”食物 - 如水果和蔬菜,海鲜,全谷物,种子和坚果。例如,坚果含有健康的脂肪,可以帮助提高胆固醇水平。

But a lack of these good foods can speed up what researchers call cardiometabolic problems. Cardiometabolic problems include stroke, diabetes or heart disease.

但缺乏这些好的食物可以可以加速研究人员所说的心脏代谢问题。心脏代谢问题包括中风,糖尿病或心脏病。

Noel Mueller is a health researcher at Johns Hopkins University in the state of Maryland. Mueller wrote about the Tufts study. He explains that a culture's diet greatly influences the number of deaths caused by cardio-metabolic disease.

诺埃尔·米勒是马里兰州约翰霍普金斯大学的健康研究员。穆勒写了一篇关于塔夫茨研究的文章。他解释说,饮食文化极大程度地影响了因心脏代谢疾病而导致的死亡人数。

Eating certain "bad" foods such as processed meats and sugary drinks can also speed up cardiometabolic problems. Eating too much processed meat raises unhealthy cholesterol levels. Sugary drinks may lead to diabetes. And, Mueller explains, a high intake of sodium, or salt, can increase blood pressure.

吃某些“坏”食物,如加工肉类和含糖饮料也会加速心脏代谢问题。吃太多的加工肉类会增加不健康的坏胆固醇水平。含糖饮料可能导致糖尿病。米勒解释说, 大量摄入钠或盐会增加血压。

In this case, "intake" is the amount of something that you eat or drink.

在这里,“摄入量”是指你吃东西或喝东西的量。

The highest proportion of deaths was due to high sodium intake -- also, high sugar-sweetened beverage intake, high intake of processed meats, and low intake of nuts and seeds.

死亡率最高的原因是高钠摄入量,还有高糖甜饮料摄入量, 加工肉类摄入量高以及坚果和种子摄入量低。。

He says people can increase their chances of living longer by eating the right foods. Eat less processed foods with high salt levels, and eat more fresh foods.

他说人们可以通过食用正确的食物来增加活得更久的机会。少吃含盐量高的加工食品,多吃新鲜食物。

Diet does contribute significantly to the overall proportion of cardiometabolic disease deaths. If we lower our intake of sodium through reduction of processed foods -- which contribute to about 80 percent of our sodium intake in the U.S. -- we can see improvements in cardiometabolic health, including reductions in the number of deaths that are due to cardiometabolic disease."

饮食确实对由心脏疾病死亡的比例控制有显著的贡献。如果我们通过减少加工食品来降低我们的钠摄入量(这一项占了美国人的钠摄入量的80%),我们就会发现心脏代谢健康有了明显的改善,包括心脏代谢疾病引起的死亡人数的减少。

The Tufts study says public health policies targeting unhealthy eating may help prevent some deaths. But in the end, policy and public awareness campaigns only do so much. It is up to people to think about what they put into their bodies.

塔夫茨研究称, 针对不健康饮食的公共卫生政策可能会减少一些死亡。但最终,政策和公众意识运动能做的只有这么多了。人们应该思考,到底该给自己的身体摄入那些食物。

Health experts writing about these diet studies remind us of another thing that countries with the healthiest diets have in common -- people walk a lot. In addition to eating right and eating less, walking may help people live longer, and live healthier.

关于这些饮食研究的健康专家提醒我们另一件事,那些饮食最健康的国家还有有共同之处 - 大家都会多走路。除了正确饮食和少吃外,步行可以帮助人们更长寿,更健康。

And that's the Health & Lifestyle report. I'm Anna Matteo.

这是健康和生活方式的报告。我是 安娜·马特奥。

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