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VOA健康报道:禁食有助于学习、提高记忆以及大脑健康

kira86 于2018-05-24发布 l 已有人浏览
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禁食对人体健康有何影响呢?美国一组研究人员称禁食对我们的大脑有好处,预防老年痴呆症。
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Fasting May Help Your Brain

禁食有益于大脑

From VOA Learning English, this is the Health & Lifestyle report.

这里是美国之音英语学习节目《健康和生活方式报告》。

More than one billion Muslims around the world observe Ramadan, Islam's holy month. Fasting during Ramadan is a requirement for believers. This means they are barred from having sex, smoking, drinking and eating from sunrise to sunset.

全世界有10亿多名穆斯林庆祝斋月到来, 伊斯兰教的神圣的斋月。斋月期间禁食是对信徒的要求。这意味着他们日出至日落期间禁止发生性行为、吸烟、饮酒和以及进食。

Today, we talk about fasting involving only food. Apart from spiritual or religious reasons, what effects does not eating have on human health?

今天我们要谈论的禁食只涉及食物。抛开精神方面和宗教方面的原因,禁食对人体健康有何影响呢?

A team of researchers in the United States says fasting is good for our brain.

美国一组研究人员称禁食对我们的大脑有好处

Mark Mattson is a neuroscientist at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland. He and others have studied how dietary restrictions might protect your brain from neurological diseases that get worse over time. Two examples of these diseases are Alzheimer's and Parkinson's.

马克·麦特森是马里兰州巴尔的摩的约翰霍普金斯大学的神经科学家。他和其他人研究了饮食控制保护我们的大脑不受神经系统疾病影响的可能性, 这种神经系统疾病原本会随着年龄的增长而恶化。其中两个例子就是是阿尔茨海默氏症和帕金森病。

His team found that controlling and restricting calories may improve a person's memory, emotions and state of mind.

他的团队发现控制和限制卡路里摄入可以改善一个人的记忆力、情绪和心境。

Mattson says his studies are built upon years of research that have confirmed links between how many calories a person eats and mental ability. Calories are a measure of energy in food.

麦特森说, 他的研究结果是建立在多年的调查之上的, 调查证实了一个人卡路里的摄入量与心智能力之间的联系。卡路里是判断食物中能量的单位。

A report in the Johns Hopkins Health Review describes the links. It said that every time we eat, a sugar called glucose is stored in the liver as glycogen. It takes your body about 10 to 12 hours to use up all of the glycogen.

《约翰霍普金斯健康评论》的一份报告描述了这种关联。报道写到, 每当我们吃东西的时候, 一种称为葡萄糖的糖类以糖原形式贮存在肝脏上。你的身体需要10到12小时才能消耗掉所有的糖原。

The report said, "After the glycogen is used up, your body starts burning fats, which are converted into chemicals used by neurons as energy. These chemicals are important to learning, memory and overall brain health."

报告还称:“糖原被耗尽后,你的身体才会开始燃烧脂肪,而这转化成的化学物质被神经元作为能量。这种化学物质对学习、记忆和大脑整体健康都很重要。”

However, if you eat three meals a day, with snacks in between, your body does not have time to use up all of the glycogen in the liver. So, the learning and memory chemicals are not produced.

可是,如果你一天吃三顿饭,每顿饭之间还吃零食,你的身体就没有足够的时间消耗掉所有存储在肝脏上的糖原了。当然,也就不会产生有助于学习和记忆的化学物质了。

Mattson said that physical exercise can also use up the glycogens. He added that it was not surprising that "exercise has been shown to have the same positive effect on the brain as fasting."

麦特森说,体育锻炼也会消耗糖原。他还补充道:“运动已被证明同禁食一样,同样有益于大脑。这不足为奇。”

The researchers found that cutting down on food at least two days a week can improve neural connections in the hippocampus. This part of the brain controls emotions and plays a part in long-term memory.

研究人员发现每周至少两天减少食物可以改善海马体的神经连接。大脑的这部分区域控制我们的情绪,并且影响长期记忆。

A calorie-controlled diet also protected neurons against the build-up of amyloid plaques. Amyloid plaque is a protein commonly found in the brains of people with Alzheimer's.

控制热量的饮食同样也保护神经元免受淀粉样斑块堆积。淀粉样斑是阿尔茨海默氏症(别名:老年痴呆症)患者大脑中常见的一种蛋白质。

Ways to fast safely

安全禁食的方法

If you want to try fasting, Mattson has two suggestions.

如果你像尝试禁食,麦特森有两个建议

The first is a diet called 5:2. On this diet, you eat only 500 calories for two nonconsecutive days each week. Then the rest of the week, you eat a healthy diet with a normal amount of calories. A normal amount for women is about 2,000. For men, it is 2,500.

第一种是一种叫做5:2轻断食。这种禁食法是指每周在不连续的两天里只摄入500卡。然后再本周的其余5天理,你吃健康的饮食,正常摄入卡路里。正常摄入量女性为2000卡,男性是2500卡。

The other suggestion is time restriction. In one day, you eat all of your meals in one eight-hour period. This should give your body the time it needs to use up all the glycogen in the liver, start burning fat and produce those chemicals we talked about earlier.

另一种建议是时间限制。在某一天,8小时内吃完一整天的所有膳食。这可以给你的身体所需的时间来消耗储存在肝脏上的糖原,然后开始燃烧脂肪,并产生我们之前提到过的(对学习、记忆和大脑整体健康都很重要)化学物质

However, Mattson warned that if you have never fasted before, do not begin fasting immediately.

不过,麦特森警告说,如果你从来没有禁食过的话,不要立即开始禁食。

The researchers say our bodies need to get used to calorie restrictions. They compare it to a person who is not physically active and then decides to run a long distance race without any training. They may not like fasting and give up easily.

研究人员说,我们的身体需要适应卡路里限制。研究人员将之比作为,一个身体素质不好的人却要在没人任何训练的情况下长跑。他们可能不喜欢禁食的感受,然后轻易放弃。

Mattson said, "It's the same thing as if you've been eating three meals a day plus snacks, and then you're not eating anything at all for two days. You're not going to like it."

麦特森说:“这就跟你每天吃三顿饭外加零食,却突然连着两天什么都不吃一样。你不会喜欢那种感觉的。”

He suggested starting with one day of limited food intake every week. Then build up to two days. Mattson warned that a person new to fasting might experience headaches, lightheadedness and moodiness. But his experiments show that these problems should pass quickly and a person's mood will improve.

他建议从每周一天限制食物摄取开始。然后慢慢再转到一周两天。麦特森提醒说,一个刚开始禁食的人可能会遇到头疼、头晕、喜怒无常的情况。但他的实验表明,这些情况很快就没有了,然后情绪会得到改善。

If you have any questions or health concerns, talk with your doctor before taking any action.

如果你有任何问题或者健康问题,请在采取禁食行动之前先咨询您的医生。

And that's the Health & Lifestyle report. I'm Anna Matteo.

以上就是本期的《健康和生活方式报告》。我是安娜·马特奥。

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