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新血液检测能检尽早查出致命的皮肤癌

kira86 于2018-08-31发布 l 已有人浏览
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澳大利亚科学家研发出世上首例血液检测,可让致命皮肤癌在早期阶段即被检查出来。
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New Blood Test Finds Deadly Skin Cancer

新血液检测能检测出致命的皮肤癌

From VOA Learning English, this is the Health & Lifestyle report.

这里是美国之音英语学习节目《健康与生活方式》报告。

Scientists in Australia say they have developed the world's first blood test to find a deadly skin cancer in its early stages. They say the test could save thousands of lives each year.

澳大利亚科学家表示,她们已经开发出世上首例血液检测,可让致命皮肤癌在早期阶段即被检查出来。她们表示,这项实验每年可以挽救上千人的生命。

Currently, to check for all kinds of skin cancers, doctors examine or remove a small piece of patients' skin. But researchers say the new blood test can detect one of the deadliest kinds of skin cancer, melanoma, sooner than other methods.

目前,为了检查各种皮肤癌,医生诊察或者取一小块病人的皮肤(进行检查)。但研究人员表示,新的血液测试能比其它方法更早检测出最致命的皮肤癌之一---黑素瘤(一种恶性肿瘤)。

In a trial involving about 200 people, the blood test found early stages of melanoma in more than 80 percent of cases.

在一项涉及约200人的实验中,血液检测在80%以上的病例中发现了早期阶段的黑色素瘤。

Professor Mel Ziman is the leader of the Melanoma Research Group at Edith Cowan University in Perth, Western Australia. Her group conducted this trial.

梅尔·齐曼教授是位于西澳大利亚州(首府)珀斯的伊迪斯科文大学的黑素瘤研究小组的负责人。她的团队组织了这次实验。

If a thin melanoma is identified early and it's removed, you have a 98 to 99 percent chance of five to ten years survival.

“如果薄黑素瘤在早期被确诊,并将其切除,患者有98%到99%的概率再活五到十年。”

Researchers explain that the sooner doctors find melanoma, the better. They say that if a thin melanoma is identified early and removed, patients have a 98 to 99 percent chance of surviving for the next five to ten years.

研究人员解释到,医生越早发现黑素瘤越好。她们表示,如果薄黑素瘤在早期确诊并切除,患者还有98%到99%的机会再活五到十年。

However, survival rates from melanoma drop sharply if the skin cancer is in later stages and has spread to other organs.

可是,假如皮肤癌处于晚期阶段并且已经扩散到其它器官的话,黑素瘤的幸存率就会急剧下降。

What is melanoma?

那什么是黑素瘤呢?

The World Health Organization says about 132,000 people are diagnosed with melanoma every year. Australia and New Zealand have the highest rates.

世卫组织称,每年约有13.2万人确诊为黑素瘤患者。澳大利亚和新西兰患黑素瘤患病率最高。

The website for the Melanoma Institute Australia says that in 2014, more than 1,400 Australians died from melanoma. And in 2017, that number rose to more than 1,800.

澳大利亚黑素瘤研究所的网站表示,在2014年,就有1400多名澳大利亚人死于黑素瘤。而在2017年,死亡人数上升至1800人以上。

How do we get melanoma?

大家是怎么患上黑素瘤的?

We get melanoma mainly by exposure to ultraviolet radiation. Patients often have had a lot of exposure to the sun and a history of sunburn.

患黑素瘤的主要原因是由于暴露于紫外线辐射造成的。患者经常过度暴晒于阳光下,还有被晒伤的经历。

On its website, the WHO says decreasing ozone levels is making the problem worse. The site adds that "as the atmosphere loses more and more of its protective filter ... and more solar UV radiation reaches the Earth's surface, more people will get skin cancer."

世卫组织在其网站上说到:臭氧含量降低正在使得问题变得更糟。该网站补充到:“由于大气层的保护滤层失去得越来越多,太阳紫外线辐射到达地面也越多,而患上皮肤癌得人也越多。”

How does the blood test work?

血液测试的工作原理是什么?

The new blood test works by detecting something called auto-antibodies. The website for the National Cancer Institute in the United States defines auto-antibody as an antibody made against substances formed by a person's own body. The body naturally forms auto-antibodies when cancerous cells start to appear.

新血液检测是通过检测一种叫做自身抗体的东西来达到目的的。美国国家癌症研究所网站将自身抗体定义是:对抗个人自身形成物质而产生的抗体。当癌细胞出现时,身体会自然而然地形成自身抗体。

In a statement to the press, Ziman explains that with melanoma, the human body makes these auto-antibodies very early. She says the new blood test takes advantage of that fact. However, she warns, "melanoma is very hard to diagnose."

在向媒体发布的一项声明中,齐曼解释到,随着黑素瘤的产生,人体很早就会产生这些自身抗体。她表示,新的血液检查就运用了这一事实。不过,她提醒道:“要诊断黑素瘤,真的非常困难。”

Researchers are planning more tests for the Australian blood test. They say they hope to improve its accuracy to 90 percent. The blood test could be available within five years.

研究人员正计划对澳大利亚血液测试进行更多测试。她们表示,她们希望能将血液检测的准确率提高到90%。该血液检查有望在五年内推广运用。

Researchers have said the test will not detect other types of skin cancers. It will only find melanoma.

研究人员还表说,该测试不会检测出其它类型的皮肤癌,只能发现黑素瘤。

Other health experts say the results of the trial should be considered with care. They urge people to keep checking their skin for early signs of skin cancer.

其他健康专家表示,实验结果应当慎重考虑。她们竭力主张大家要坚持皮肤检查,以便一出现皮肤癌早期迹象就能被发现。

Ziman says she hopes the new blood test will lead to more people checking their skin. She says that if the new blood test is available at a person's yearly check-up, patients might get skin examinations more often. And more examinations might lead to more early detections of melanoma.

齐曼表示,她希望新的血液检查将引导更多人检查他们的皮肤。她说,如果个人年度体检能提供这种新的血液检查的话,病患可能会有更多机会得使皮肤得到检查。而更多得皮肤检查可能会使得黑素瘤更早被检测到。

So that's what we are hoping to achieve is that people will feel more comfortable going for skin checks. So, it will just up the number of people that are aware and able to get their melanoma identified earlier.

“因此,我们希望实现的目标是,大家会觉得去做皮肤检查更容易、更舒服。因此,该检查将让更多人意识到并且能够让黑素瘤更早被发现。”

And that's the Health & Lifestyle report. I'm Anna Matteo.

以上就是本期健康与生活方式报告。我是安娜·马特奥。

(小e英语Jewel翻译,欢迎捉虫!)

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