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做专才or做全才?哪个对你的职业发展更有利?

kira86 于2018-10-30发布 l 已有人浏览
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是做门门精通的多面手好?还是成为某个领域的专家更受职场的欢迎呢?
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Which Is Better for Your Career: Specializing or Generalizing?

做专才or做全才?哪个对职业发展更有利?

From VOA Learning English, this is the Health & Lifestyle report.

欢迎收听美国之音英语学习节目,这里是《健康与生活方式报告》。

When trying to make a successful career, which is better: being a generalist or a specialist?

假如你想在事业上取得成功,那么,是做全才更好还是做专才更好呢?

In other words, should you generalize and know a little about a lot of things? Or should you specialize and have a deep understanding of only one area?

换句话说,你最好是“门门精通,样样稀松”,还是专攻某一领域并对该领域有深入的了解为好呢?

Well, that depends.

那就要要看情况而定了。

So, when we think about generalizing versus specializing in our career, we're really talking about can you do a broad number of tasks versus do you drill down and do one specific thing really well.

“所以,当我们考虑自己的职业道路是做全才还是做专才时,我们真正的意思是你能否处理大量的任务,或者你能否钻研一件事并将之做到极致。”

That is Natasha Olinger. Olinger is a human resource expert in Washington, D.C. She talks about the benefits of both. However, the main reason for specializing is an important one: more money.

以上娜塔莎·澳林格的原话。娜塔莎澳林格是华盛顿特区的一位人力资源专家。她谈了二者的好处。然而, 专业化的主要原因,也是很重要的原因之一:为了挣更多的钱。

So, generally speaking, the common wisdom out there is it's always better to specialize and that you can demand a higher salary if you specialize."

“因此,通常来说,普遍的看法是专业化往往更有竞争优势。因为如果你走专业化路线,你便可以要求得到更高的薪水。”

To explain her way of thinking, Olinger uses a fairly common situation - choosing a restaurant. Say you want to eat a favorite Japanese meal: sushi.

为了解释她的思维方式,澳林格列举了一个非常常见的情况---选餐厅。假如你想吃一顿最爱的日本料理----寿司。

If you go to a restaurant that only serves sushi, you can expect high quality products, and you also should expect to pay more. If you go to a place that serves sushi, tacos and pizza, the quality of the sushi may not be so great, but the prices will probably be lower. Olinger says the world of work is not all that different.

假如你去一家只供应寿司的餐厅,你可以期待买到高品质的产品,相应的,你也应该预料到要付更多的钱。假如你去一家供应寿司、玉米饼和披萨的地方,那么寿司的品质可能就不会那么好,但相应的,价格也会更便宜。澳林格表示道,职场亦无甚差异。

However, she adds that all is not perfect in the world of the specialist. If there is a drop in economic activity or possibly a recession, a generalist may get more job offers.

不过,她补充道:就专才而言,也并非一切都完美。如果经济下滑或出现衰退,多面手可能会得到更多的工作机会。

Though it's generally considered better to be a specialist, the recession of 2008 really showed us that there are times when being a generalist translates to job security even though in boom times being a specialist often leads to a higher salary.

“虽然通常认为专才更好,但2008年的经济衰退却告诉我们:尽管在经济繁荣时期,专才往往会得到更高的薪水,但时总有些时候,当一个多面手才能保住饭碗。”

Size matters

规模很重要

So, are some fields best for generalists and others for specialists? Olinger says the size of the organization can be more important than a sector, or industry.

那么,会不会有些领域适合多面手,而有些领域适合专才呢?林格解释到:在什么样规模的单位上班,比在哪个行业哪个部门更重要。

I would say the biggest difference -- in terms of, is it better to be a generalist or specialist -- is more the size of the organization, oftentimes, than the sector. So, smaller organizations tend to need more generalists. And larger companies tend to need more specialists. And this is oftentimes regardless of industry.

“我想说的是,就‘做专才更好还是全才更好而言’,最大的区别取决于你任职公司的规模而不是任职的部门。因此,规模较小的公司往往需要更多的多面手;而大公司往往需要更多的专才。这往往与行业无关。”

So Olinger suggests thinking about the size and type of business you would like to do it for. Small businesses often need people who can do many things. Also, companies that are just getting started often need people who are able to perform many different tasks.

所以澳林格建议考虑一下你想应聘公司的规模和业务类型。小企业通常需要能处理很多事情的人,此外,刚刚起步的公司通常需要能执行许多不同任务的人。

For example, your job description may be that of a graphic designer, but you may also have to do some writing. A person who can do many different things is often called a Jack-of-all-trades and is able to wear many hats.

例如,你的职位描述可能是一位平面设计师,但你可能也需要写一些东西。一个能做许多不同事情、能担任许多不同的职务的人,通常被称为“多面手”,。

I would say, think about the type of organization in which you want to work. If you want to work for a smaller organization or possibly a start-up where, you know, you're going to have to kind of wear all different kinds of hats...then you would want to focus more on generalizing and learning kind of a broad set of skills.

“我想说的是,想清楚你想去什么类型的公司工作。如果你想去一个较小型企业上班,或者是一个刚起步的公司上班,你懂的,你将不得不担任各种职务,另外你需要往全才方面发展,学习各种各样的技能。”

Larger companies can be just the opposite. They often need specialists -- experts in a given field. In fact, they may require that you stay in your lane, meaning you do your job and nothing else.

而大型公司则恰恰相反,他们通常需要专才---某个特定领域的专家。事实上,他们可能会要求你坚守既定岗位,也就是说,你只负责你的工作,别的事无需操心。

If you really want to go into a much larger corporation you probably want to specialize. They're going to be looking for someone who can solve a very specific type of problem that they have. And there probably isn't going to be as much room or really need to wear all those different hats and kind of pinch hit where needed.

“如果你想进一家大型企业上班,你可能得保持专业化。他们要找的是能解决特定问题的人。可能不会有多大的发展空间,也无需你担任各种职务,你只需能在所需岗位胜任即可。”

Know yourself

了解自己

When planning your career path, the best advice might be to "know yourself."

在你规划职业道路时,最好的建议可能是“(先要)了解自己”。

Some people like to know a little about a lot of things. They might lose interest in working on the same thing day after day. These people might be happier in a career that lets them perform different duties.

有些人喜欢许多事都稍微了解一些。他们可能会对日复一日重复同样的事失去兴趣。这些人在一个能让他们履行不同职责的工作中,可能会更快乐。

But what if you really love learning everything there is to know about just one subject? You like the idea of being an expert. In that case, it is probably a good idea for you to specialize. However, if you are preparing to specialize in something, you had better make sure that you really like it.

但是,如果你真的喜欢研究有关某项主题的一切呢?你喜欢做专才。假如是这种情况,你最好专攻某个领域。不过,如果你准备专攻某一领域的话,你最好确定你真的喜欢这个领域。

A mix of both may be best

两者兼而有之可能是最好的选择

But perhaps the best solution is a mix of generalization and specialization.

但也许全才通才兼而有之才是最好的解决办法。

Some career planners call this a "T-shaped" career. The top of the T would be the generalized part. The upright stem of the T would be the deeper understanding of a person's general knowledge - their expertise.

一些职业规划师称之为“T”字型人才。T顶部一横代表通才部分。T垂直的一竖则代表对某一专业领域的深入了解。

Olinger agrees. She suggests that combining the two may be the best answer.

澳林格也同意这个观点。她认为将两两者结合起来可能才是最好的答案。

I think, ideally, the most successful candidates -- in terms of balancing the ability to demand a higher salary and having their jobs be quote-un-quote 'recession-proof' -- tend to balance specialized skills with general skills.

“我认为,最成功的应试者倾向于在专业技能和一般技能之间保持平衡,即:既有得到更高的薪水的能力,又有在经济不景气时保住饭碗的能力才是最理想的。”

She notes, that a lot depends on where you are in your career. It may be easier to be a generalist when you are younger and then slowly specialize as you get older.

她指出,这在很大程度上取决于你在职业生涯中的阶段。年轻时,也许当一个多面手更容易,然后随着年龄增长再慢慢变得专业化。

However, experts advise workers to keep their skills up-to-date and be willing to make changes, when needed -- no matter what industry you work in or how old you are.

不过,专家建议:无论你身处哪个行业,也无论你年龄有多大,请掌握最新技能,并愿意做出改变。

And that's the Health & Lifestyle report.

以上就是本期《健康和生活方式报告》。

I'm Anna Matteo.

我是安娜·马特奥。

"

在工作方面,你喜欢身兼多职,还是更喜欢专攻某一个领域呢?在评论区告诉我们吧,你还可以在评论中练习本期故事中学到的表达。

When it comes to work, do you like wearing many hats or do you prefer to drill down into one specific area? Let us know in the Comments Section -- where you can also practice using the expressions from this story.

(小e英语Jewel翻译,欢迎捉虫!)

"

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