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美国最新锻炼指南:锻炼从娃娃抓起,久坐危害大

kira86 于2018-11-30发布 l 已有人浏览
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美国政府更改各年龄段的锻炼指南,专家建议儿童开始锻炼的年纪越早越好,3-5岁开始锻炼的孩子将受益终身。
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New Exercise Guidelines: Start Young, Sit Less

美国最新锻炼指南:少坐,锻炼从小开始

From VOA Learning English, this is the Health & Lifestyle report.

你正在收听的是美国之音英语学习节目《健康与生活方式》报告。

Most of us know that physical activity leads to better health. That is nothing new.

我们大多数人都知道身体活动有益身体健康。这个观点并不新鲜。

But for the first time in 10 years, the United States government has changed its guidance on how much exercise people need to stay healthy and when they should start.

但美国政府10年来首次就“需要多大运动量才能保持健康,以及应该从何时开始锻炼”方面更改其指导方针。

Brett Giroir is Assistant Secretary for Health at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. In a video, he spoke with the Associated Press about the new guidelines.

布雷特·吉罗尔是美国卫生与公共服务部负责卫生事物的副部长。他在一段视频中与美联社谈到了这项新的指导方针。

Dr. Giroir says he is excited about the new guidelines. He adds that getting or attaining the health benefits from exercise may be easier than earlier thought.

吉罗尔博士表示,他对新指导方针感到很激动。他补充道:从锻炼中获得健康益处可能比之前认为的还要容易。

I'm very excited about the guidelines because what we've found out is that it's actually easier to attain the health benefits than we thought before. And the health benefits are so much greater.

“我对这些指导方针感到激动异常的原因是因为我们发现,从运动中获益比我们认为的要更容易,而且对健康的益处也要大得多。”

That is good news for people in the U.S. who may need to lose weight.

这个发现对那些可能需要减肥的美国人来说是个好消息。

The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports that in 2016 about 93 million adults nationwide were overweight or considered obese. Its website notes that obesity rates for both adults and children have been rising since 1999.

美国疾病控制与预防中心报告称,2016年全美约有9300万人超重或属于肥胖。该网站指出,自1999年以来,成人和儿童的肥胖率一直在上升。

For children and teens

适用于儿童及青少年的锻炼指南

The new federal guidance states that children as young as 3-years-old need to be physically active. Earlier guidelines used to begin at age 6.

新的联邦指导方针规定,哪怕3岁以下儿童也需要保持身体活跃,而之前的锻炼指南建议从6岁开始锻炼。

Dr. Girior says that the most important time for children to begin exercising is between the ages of 3 and 5. He notes that boys and girls in this age group need at least three hours of activity every day.

吉里尔博士表示,儿童开始锻炼的最重要的时间点是三到五岁。他指出,这个年龄段的男孩和女孩每天至少需要进行三小时的活动。

That was not present in our previous guidelines. But essentially, those recommendations are that children in the 3- to 5-year-old age group really require about three hours of active activities per day. That could be light activities, moderate activities, or even vigorous activities. This is the kind of play that children normally engage in.

“这一点在我们以前的指导方针中是没有的。但基本上建议3到5岁孩子每天需要进行大约3小时的积极活动,低强度活动、或中等强度活动,甚至剧烈的活动皆可。这些强度在孩子们通常玩的游戏中都会涉及。”

Doctors say it is important to start young. They add that from birth to age 5, a child's brain develops more than at any other time in life. These developments have a lasting effect on a child's ability to learn and to succeed in school and in life.

医生建议从小开始锻炼很重要。他们补充道:从出生到5岁之间,儿童的大脑发育比生命中任何时候都要快,这些发育对儿童的学习能力、以及在学校和生活中取得成功的能力方面有持久的影响。

Also, Giroir says that children who start exercising at a young age are more likely to establish healthy behaviors they will continue into adulthood.

吉罗尔还表示,儿童从小开始锻炼,更有可能养成健康的习惯,并且一直到成年都坚持这个好习惯。

Dr. Giroir does not suggest putting your 5-year-old on a "treadmill" or other exercise equipment. He said, simply giving a child the time and space to play actively as they normally would is enough.

吉罗尔博士并不建议让5岁的孩子去“跑步机”或其它的锻炼设备上锻炼。他说,只要给孩子足够的时间和空间,让他们像平时一样积极玩耍就足够了。

The new guidelines say that children ages 6 through 17 get at least one hour of moderate to vigorous activity a day. Most of this activity should be aerobic exercise, such as biking, swimming or running. Aerobic activity can strengthen the heart and lungs by making them work hard for several minutes or more.

新的指导方针表示,6岁到17岁儿童每天至少要进行一小时的中等至高强度锻炼。大部分活动应该是有氧运动,如骑自行车、游泳或跑步。有氧运动可以通过让心肺辛苦几分钟或稍长时间, 便能改善心肺功能。

Exercise should also include muscle- and bone-strengthening activities, such as climbing trees or playground equipment and playing sports. Experts suggest that children get this kind of exercise at least three times a week.

运动还应包括增强肌肉和强化骨骼方面的活动,如爬树、或在操场设备上进行的活动以及体育运动。专家建议孩子每周至少进行三次增强肌肉和强化骨骼方面的活动。

For adults

适用于成年人的锻炼指南

For adults, the suggested length of time for exercise remains the same.

给成年人建议的运动时长保持不变。

So for adults, the guidelines recommend 150 minutes per week of moderate to vigorous physical activity. That could be brisk walking; it could mowing the lawn; it could be gardening; it could be dancing … any kind of activity that gets your heart rate up and gets you exercising moderately.

“而指导方针建议成年人:每周进行150分钟中等至高强度锻炼。运动可以是急步走;也可以是修剪草坪;也可以是做园艺;还可以是跳舞;以及任何能让你心跳加速、进行适度锻炼的运动。”

The federal government has changed its guidance for the amount of aerobic exercise adults should have.

联邦政府在成年人应该进行的有氧运动量方面已经改变了指导方针。

Earlier guidelines stated that aerobic activity is only effective if it lasts for at least 10 minutes.

以前的指南称有氧运动只有持续至少10分钟才有效。

Experts now say that even short amounts of aerobics can help. It can provide short-term health benefits, such as lowering blood pressure, reducing anxiety and improving sleep. They also think adults need at least two days of muscle-strengthening exercise like pushups or lifting weights.

专家如今表示,即使时少量的有氧运动也能有所帮助。少量有氧运动能起到短期的健康益处,如降低血压、减少焦虑以及改善睡眠。他们还认为成年人每周至少需要有两天进行强化肌肉方面的运动,比如俯卧撑或举重。

For adults over 65

适用于65岁以上成年人的锻炼指南

The advice for older adults remains mostly unchanged from earlier federal guidelines.

对老年人的建议与早期的联邦指导方针基本保持不变。

However, those over age 65 should include activities that help aid balance and flexibility. Better balance means fewer falls and less chance of injury.

不过,建议65岁以上的老年人应该参加有助于平衡和灵活性的活动。平衡越好意味着跌倒的次数,因而减少受伤的机会。

Sitting too much is still very bad

久坐危害依然不减

The new guidelines have changed nothing about the dangers of sitting too much. It is especially harmful and can even undo the benefits of exercise you may have gained.

在新的指导方针中,在新的指导方针中,久坐的危害没有任何改变。久坐非常有害,甚至可以抵消锻炼已经带来的好处。

And that's the Health & Lifestyle report. I'm Anna Matteo.

以上就是本期《健康与生活方式》报告的全部内容。我是安娜·马特奥。

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