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研究发现:抑郁症可能加速大脑衰老

kira86 于2019-02-22发布 l 已有人浏览
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科学家研究发现,抑郁症或有抑郁倾向可能会加快正常的衰老速度。这算不算给了我们一个新的要快乐起来的理由?
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Researchers Find Clues that Depression May Speed Brain Aging

研究人员发现:抑郁症可能加速大脑衰老

Memory and thinking skills naturally slow with age. Scientists are now looking inside living brains to tell if depression might speed aging. The scientists report that some of the signs they have found are worrisome.

随着年龄的增长,记忆力和思考能力自然会下降。科学家们现在正在观察活人的大脑内部,以判断抑郁是否会加速大脑衰老。科学家们报告称,他们发现的一些迹象颇令人担忧。

Depression has long been linked to some cognitive problems. Depression late in life even may increase the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease. Yet how depression might harm the ability to remember things and think clearly is not yet known.

长期以来,抑郁症一直与一些认知问题相关,晚年的抑郁甚至可能会增加患老年痴呆症的风险。然而,抑郁症是如何损伤记忆能力和清晰思考的能力的,还尚不清楚。

One possibility: Brain cells communicate by sending messages across connections called synapses. Generally, good cognition is linked to more and stronger synapses. With a weakening of cognitive ability, those connections slowly shrink and die. But until recently, scientists could count synapses only in brain tissue collected after the person dies.

一种可能是:脑细胞通过被称为突触的连接发送信息进行交流。一般来说,良好的认知与更多、更强的突触有关。随着认知能力的减弱,这些连接会慢慢缩小并消失。但直到最近,科学家们还只能对人死后收集的脑组织中的突触进行计数。

Yale University scientists used a new method to study the brains of living people. They discovered that patients with depression had a lower density of synapses than healthy people of the same age.

耶鲁大学的科学家们使用了一种新的方法来研究活人的大脑。他们发现,抑郁症患者的突触密度比同龄的健康人的突出密度要低。

The lower the density, the more severe the signs of depression. Yale University neuroscientist Irina Esterlis says this is especially true of problems with loss of interest in activities patients once enjoyed. She spoke at a meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

突触密度越低,抑郁症的症状越严重。耶鲁大学神经系统的科学家伊莉娜·埃斯特利斯表示,这对于对曾经喜欢的活动失去兴趣的病人来说,问题尤其严重。她在美国科学促进会的一次会议上发表了讲话。

Esterlis was not studying just older adults, but people of all ages, including those too young for any cognitive changes to be noticeable. She was working from a theory that early damage can build up.

埃斯特利斯的研究不只是老年人,还有各年龄段的人,包括那些认知变化不太明显的年轻人。她是从“早期的损伤会累积”这个理论出发进行研究的。

We think depression might be accelerating the normal aging, she said.

她表示:“我们认为抑郁症可能会加快正常的衰老速度。”

Her studies are small. To prove if depression really does increase the risk of cognitive problems as we age would require more investigation. Jovier Evans is a scientist with the U.S. National Institute of Mental Health. He proposed a study of synaptic density on larger numbers of people as they get older, to see if and how it changes over time in those with and without depression.

她的研究规模较小。要证明抑郁症是否真的会随着年龄的增长而增加认知问题面临风险,还需要进行更多的调查。哈维尔·埃文斯是美国国家心理健康研究所的一名科学家。他提议了一项研究,提议研究更多人随着年龄的增长,突触密度是否会因有或者没有抑郁症状发生变化,以及这些变化是如何发生的。

Esterlis has announced plans for a larger study to do that. Volunteers would be injected with a radioactive substance that links up to a protein in the vesicles, or storage containers, used by synapses. Then each volunteer would be given an imaging test, known as a PET scan. During the test, areas with synapses light up, enabling researchers to see how many are in different parts of the brain.

埃斯特利斯已宣布了一项更大规模的研究计划。志愿者们将会被注射一种放射性物质,这种物质与突触所使用的囊泡(突触储存容器)的蛋白质相连接。然后每位志愿者将接受一项成像测试,即PET扫描。在测试过程中,有突触的区域会亮起来,这样研究人员就能看到大脑的不同部位各有多少突触。

Esterlis said there are no medications that target synapse damage.

埃斯特利斯称,目前还没有针对突触损伤修复的药物。

Doctor Mary Sano directs the Mount Sinai Alzheimer's Disease Research Center in New York. She was not involved in the new research.

玛丽·萨诺医生是纽约西奈山阿尔茨海默病研究中心的主任。她没有参与这项新研究。

Sano warned that normal cognitive aging is a complex process that involves other health problems, such as heart disease. It might be that depression does not worsen synaptic weakening. It could just makes the problem more noticeable, she said.

萨诺警告称,正常的认知老化是一个涉及到其他健康问题的复杂过程,比如心脏病。她说,这可能是因为抑郁不会加重突触弱化,而只会让问题变得更加明显。

With depression "at any age, there's a hit on the brain. At an older age the hit may be more visible because there may already be some loss," she explained.

对于抑郁症,“在任何年纪有抑郁症,大脑都会遭受打击。年纪愈大,这种影响可能会更加明显,因为大脑可能已经被损伤很多次了。”她解释到。

I'm Ashley Thompson.

我是阿什利·汤普森。

小e英语Jewel翻译!

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