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科学改变农业:DNA技术帮助农民识别农作物病害

kira86 于2019-01-18发布 l 已有人浏览
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农民一怕天灾而怕虫害,如今,科技公司横在研发一种简单的设备,在病毒传播之前,就锁定它,避免造成严重的经济损失。
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DNA Technology Helps Farmers Identify Crop Diseases

DNA技术帮助农民识别农作物病害

It is often difficult for farmers to identify diseases quickly enough to protect their crops and those on neighboring farms.Now, some farmers are using a simple device directly in the field to find viruses before they spread.

对于农民来说,要足够快地识别病害来保护他们自己的,还有邻近农场的作物通常是困难的。现在,一些农民直接在田间使用一种简单的设备,在病毒传播之前找到它们。

In Tanzania, several viruses are a threat to cassava crops.Farmers struggle to identify the diseases in an urgent effort to avoid severe crop damage.

在坦桑尼亚,有几种病毒会对木薯作物构成威胁。农民们正在努力鉴别这些病害,以避免严重的农作物损失。

The disease identification process is often difficult when farmers are acting on their own.If they do not know what is attacking their crops, they cannot decide the best way to fight the disease.

当农民自己去进行这一过程时,识别病害的过程往往很困难。如果他们不知道是什么在攻击他们的作物,他们就无法找出对抗这种病害的最佳方式。

A device from British technology company Oxford Nanopore is changing that. The device extracts deoxyribonucleic acid, better known as DNA, from plants.DNA is the carrier of genetic information in nearly all living things.

英国科技公司牛津纳米孔的一款设备正在改变这一现状。该设备从植物中提取脱氧核糖核酸,也就是DNA。DNA是几乎所有生物的遗传信息的载体。

The device helps farmers identify what is harming their crops so they can change to more resistant crops.

这种设备可以帮助农民识别是什么在损害他们的作物,这样他们就可以转向种植更具抗性的作物。

Laura Boykin is with the University of Western Australia and also works with the Cassava Virus Action Project.She brought the device to a Tanzanian farm owned by Asha Mohamed.

劳拉·博伊金就职于西澳大利亚大学,也参与了木薯病毒行动项目。她把这个装置带到坦桑尼亚阿莎·穆罕默德的农场。

We are here collecting leaf punches from infected material to test. To do a DNA extraction and then start sequencing in the field.

“我们在这里从受感染的材料中收集叶片进行测试。进行DNA提取,然后开始实地测序。

The testing identified a number of viruses in the cassava fields near Mohamed's farm.The process also discovered that plants considered resistant to disease had a very low viral level.

这项检测在穆罕默德的农场附近的木薯地里发现了一些病毒。过程中还发现,那些被认为抗病的植物只有非常低的病毒水平。

So what would have normally taken six months to a year, has just happened in a couple of hours. And that's possible because of amazing technology that exists, that is able to give farmers results real-time.

“原本这项检测通常需要6个月到1年的时间,但在几个小时内就发生了。因为现有的惊人技术,能够给农民实时的结果,所以这使其成为了可能。”

Once the viruses were identified, Asha Mohamed was given two kinds of seeds that are resistant to the diseases.

一旦病毒被识别出来,阿莎·穆罕默德就得到了两种对这种疾病有抵抗力的种子。

In another case, DNA was collected from a pawpaw tree farm in Kenya. With that test, the technology was able to identify diseases affecting Naomi Mumo's crops.

在另一起案例中,DNA是从肯尼亚的一个木瓜农场采集的。通过测试,这项技术能够识别影响那奥米·穆默的作物的病害。

All my pawpaw were affected by a disease, and I didn't know what kind of disease it was.But now, I have people who have identified the disease using new technology, and within a very short time. So I'm very happy.

“我所有的木瓜都得了一种病,但是我不知道是什么病害。但是现在,我发现有人使用新技术在很短的时间内识别出了这种病害。所以我很高兴。”

Laura Boykin says she and other researchers returned to Mohamed's cassava farm nine months later. She said the new plants were very healthy and had produced a large, successful crop.

劳拉·博伊金说,她和其他研究人员9个月后回到穆罕默德的木薯农场。她说,这些新作物长势良好,产量很大,很成功。

After nine months of her growing the improved varieties, we are back here, and today we harvested her cassava plants and she went from zero yield to 35 tons per hectare, which is massive.

“在她种植改良品种9个月后,我们回到这里,今天她的木薯收获,产量从零增长到每公顷35吨,这是一个巨大的变化。”

The speed at which farmers identify diseases can mean the difference between the success or failure on large areas of crop land. Now, the use of such simple and easily transportable DNA sequencing devices is making that possible.

农民识别病害的速度可以决定大面积农田的收成。现在,这种简单易行的DNA测序设备的使用使得这一切成为可能。

I'm Bryan Lynn.

布莱恩·林恩报道。

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