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名师答疑:情态动词must和have to的用法区别

kira86 于2018-12-17发布 l 已有人浏览
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情态动词must和have to之间的用法区别?
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Ask a Teacher: Must and Have To

名师答疑:must和have to的区别

Today we will answer a question about two misunderstood modal verbs.

今天,我们会解答2个情态动词的问题,这2个词很容易弄错。

Modal verbs are helping verbs. They help us express things like necessity, permission, ability and possibility. For example, "I can bring the bag tomorrow" uses the modal verb "can" to express ability.

情态动词是助动词,可以帮助我们表达必要性、许可、能力和可能性的含义。比如,“我可以明天把包带来”这句话就用到了动词can(能,可以)来表达能力。

Now, here is our question:

下面来说一下本期的问题。

Question:Hi! Can you tell me the difference between "must" and "have to"? - Manuel

问题:您好!可以请教下“must”和“have to”的区别吗?——曼纽尔发问。

Answer:Hello, Manuel. Thanks for writing!

解答:您好,曼纽尔。首先,感谢致信!

The modal verbs "must" and "have to" are very close in meaning. They both express a requirement or need to do something.

情态动词“must”和“have to”的意思十分相近,都可以表达需要做某事的含义。

First, let me tell you what grammar books say about these verbs. Then, I will tell you how we really use them.

首先来说一下语法书上对这2个动词的解读。然后再来告诉你如何在实际中运用它们。

Grammar books say that:Must expresses that the speaker has decided that something is a requirement or necessity.

语法书上说:“must”表达的是——讲话人已经断定某件事是有必要去做的。

And "have to" expresses that someone else has made something a requirement or necessity. An example would be a rule or law.

而“have to”表达的是——其他人要求有必要做这件事,比如说规则或者法律就符合这种情况。

But, in the real world, we do not often separate the meanings this way. We use both modals to express that something...

但在现实世界里,我们通常不会对意思做这样的区分。这2个词,我们都会用来表达这样的含义……
must.png

However, when speaking American English, we usually only use "must" to say that something is very likely. For all other meanings, it usually sounds too formal or official.

不过,在美式英语中,我们通常只会用“must”来表达某件事的可能性极大。而除此之外的其他意思,听起来通常会太过正式或者太过官方。

And, Americans rarely use "must" in questions, except when criticizing someone:Must you chew so loud?

此外,美国人很少在问题里用“must”这个词,除非是批评他人,如:你嚼东西非要这么大声吗?

And, here is something to watch for:The negative forms of "must" and "have to" have completely different meanings.

下面要注意了:“must”和“have to”的否定形式意思则完全不同了。

We use the negative of "have to" when something is not required or necessary:

我们用“have to”的否定形式是在某件事并非必要的时候。

You don't have to wash the dishes. I'll wash them!

您不必洗碗了,我来洗就行了!

But "must not" or "mustn't" means that something is banned or not permitted.

而“must not”和“mustn’t”的意思是——某件事受到禁止,不允许任何人做。

And that's Ask a Teacher.

以上就是本期的《名师答疑》。

To ask another question, simply go to our website: learningenglish.voanews.com/.

如果大家还有其他问题要问,只需要访问在我们的官网learningenglish.voanews.com/留言即可。

I'm Alice Bryant.

我是爱丽丝·布莱恩特。

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