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世界各国护士短缺,是什么造成了护士的短缺?

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Shortage of Nurses Is Worldwide, but Worst in Poorer Nations 高速下载 This is the VOA Special English Developm
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Shortage of Nurses Is Worldwide, but Worst in Poorer Nations


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This is the VOA Special English Development Report.

The health care industry needs more nurses. All areas of the world face a nursing shortage. But the shortage is most severe in developing countries. Many of their nurses leave. They move to more developed nations for better pay, better working conditions and better chances for career development.

A World Bank report earlier this year called attention to the problem. For example, nearly two thousand nurses left the Caribbean between two thousand two and two thousand six.

Caribbean nations currently have about one nurse for every one thousand people. The ratio of nurses to population is about ten times higher in the United States and countries in the European Union.

Currently, more than twenty-one thousand nurses who trained in the Caribbean are working in the United States, Canada and Britain.

Gaetan Lafortune is with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development in Paris. He says the nursing shortage also affects industrialized countries.

GAETAN LAFORTUNE: "There are concerns in most O.E.C.D. countries that the number of nurses is too small to respond to the demand. And what is more worrying is that their concerns are sort of growing."

Mr. Lafortune says a large number of nurses are expected to retire within the next ten years. At the same time, the health care needs of aging populations are expected to grow, intensifying the shortage of nurses.

GAETAN LAFORTUNE: "In the U.S., for instance, some researchers have projected that there may be a shortage of close to a million nurses by two thousand twenty."

The United States is one of thirty-one countries in the O.E.C.D. Gaetan Lafortune says in recent years many of the countries increased their efforts to hire foreign nurses.

GAETAN LAFORTUNE: "But this has raised concern that O.E.C.D. countries were mainly exporting their shortage problem to countries that may have an even greater need for these nurses."

In May,the World Health Assembly approved a globle code of practice on the international recruitment of health workers.The assembly is made up of countries in the World Health Orgnization.

The code advises against actively recruiting hearth workers from developing countries  that face severe shorges. The world also faces a shortage of nursing trainers.As a result,nursing schools are forced to turn away from followed-by students.

And that's the VOA Special English Development Report. written by June Simms.

You can find transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our reports at en8848.com. What you are thoughts about the nursing shortage? And what should be done about it? share your comments on our website or on Facebook at VOA Learning English. I'm Bob Doughty.

美国是世界上外籍护士最短缺的国家,根据美国卫生和人类服务部门的统计,在2000年时,护士的短缺为6%,至2010年时,会增加到12%,至2020 年会达到29%,护士持续短缺的现象,迫使美国政府在签证,移民,工作条件等方面给予了较为优厚的条件,CGFNS考试的在设立全球考点,也使各国护士得以一条特别通道进入美国。

是什么造成了护士的短缺?

  “一人生病,全家陪护”。如果不从根本上改善护士待遇,未来几年我国很可能出现“护士荒”,从而制约医疗卫生事业的发展

  在我国,“一人生病,全家陪护”已成为一个普遍现象。由于护士配备严重不足,很多本该由护士做的事情,往往转嫁给病人家属或护工。这不仅导致护理“缩水”,而且带来很多医疗隐患。

  我国护士缺口到底有多大?据卫生部全国注册护士信息库数据,截至2009年底,全国注册护士为218万人和执业医师数量相近。按照国际惯例,医护比应为1∶2,也就是说,护士人数应为医生人数的两倍。可见,我国护士数量明显不足。

  那么,护士为什么会如此短缺?一个重要原因就是护理收费严重亏本,医院不愿多聘护士。以北京为例,一级护理的收费是每天9元。所谓一级护理,包括晨间护理、晚间护理、喂饭喂水、翻身拍背、卧位护理、排泄护理、擦浴洗头等。据中华护理学会的一项调查,按目前的定价水平,三级医院住院护理价格平均仅能补偿实际成本的10%。由于护理收费入不敷出,导致很多医院靠压缩护士编制来降低成本,有的甚至违法使用廉价的合同制护士。近年来,一些医院的床位大量增加,但护士编制却未相应增加。按照卫生部要求,三级医院普通病房床位与护士之比应为1∶0.4。虽然这个标准远远低于国际通行的1∶1,但不少医院仍不达标。而在国外,医院的护士配备是很严格的。如果护士数量不能满足病房的需求,医院必须关掉部分病房,而不能让护士超负荷劳动。

  收入少、压力大、地位低,是导致护士短缺的另一个原因。在我国,护士长期超负荷工作,而劳动价值却得不到体现和尊重。从收入上看,“当护士不如当保姆”并非夸大之辞。例如,我国1985年出台规定,从事护士工龄满20年以上的,每月可享受10元的工龄津贴。虽然物价已经翻了几番,但这个补贴标准仍在沿用。由于收入与付出差距悬殊,护士队伍人才流失严重。据哈尔滨对70家医院2100名护士调查,仅有不到一半的人“准备长期从事护理工作”,而选择 “一有机会就改行”的占到40%。

  近年来,美国等发达国家也出现了护士短缺问题,并已经开始从中国高薪招聘护士,吸引了很多优秀人才。这提醒我们,如果不从根本上改善护士的待遇和地位,未来几年我国很可能出现“护士荒”,从而制约医疗卫生事业的发展。

  俗话说:“三分治疗,七分护理”。这说明,护理的价值并不比治疗的价值低。随着医学的发展,护理的技术含量越来越高,作用也越来越大。研究表明,医院每增加或减少一个护士,治愈率、抢救成功率、院内感染率、差错率等都会受到影响。因此,解决护士短缺问题,不仅关乎病人的冷暖,而且关乎医学的进步。

  把护士还给病人,是医学人文精神的体现,也是医改的应有之义。今年以来,我国开始推行“无陪护病房”试点,旨在让医院病房配备足够数量的护士,把病人家属从陪护中解脱出来。但是,“无陪护”的前提是尊重护理劳动,提高护士待遇,尤其是改革畸形的护理收费标准,使医院能够持续健康发展。否则,“无陪护”就很难落到实处。(人民日报:白剑峰)

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