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利用卫星消除极端贫困 这样的精准扶贫方式是否有效?

kira86 于2019-02-15发布 l 已有人浏览
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科学家通过卫星图像来绘制极端贫困地区的地图,但这样的精准扶贫有效吗?
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卫星.jpg
Can Satellites Help Identify Extreme Poverty?

卫星能否帮助识别极端贫困?

The fight against poverty is getting help from faraway objects: satellites orbiting the Earth.

消除贫困的斗争正在得到一种遥远事物的帮助:环绕地球运行的卫星。

Satellite images are helping researchers map areas of extreme poverty. Those pictures may help officials quickly identify when development policies and programs are working, and when they are not.

卫星图像正帮助研究人员绘制极端贫困地区的地图。这些图片可以帮助官员们快速确定发展政策和项目什么时候有效,什么时候无效。

Ending extreme poverty by the year 2030 is the first of the United Nations' 17 Sustainable Development Goals.

2030年极端贫困项目是联合国17个可持续发展目标中的第一个。

Experts usually measure poverty by using official census records and other studies. But population counts are costly, slow and labor intensive. Countries usually organize such studies once every several years.

专家通常是通过官方的人口普查记录等研究来衡量贫困程度。但是人口计数十分昂贵缓慢,还需要进行密集劳动。各国通常每隔几年才组织一次这种研究。

But satellites can map the Earth's surface with great detail every few days. The imagery is getting better and less costly as a growing number of public and private satellite systems go into service.

但是卫星每隔几天就可以非常详细地绘制地球表面的地图。随着越来越多的公共和私人卫星系统投入使用,图像质量变得越来越好,成本也越来越低。

Researchers have used the brightness of lights in nighttime images to estimate an area's economic activity. Others have used machine learning to identify richer and poorer villages from satellite imagery.

研究人员利用夜间图像中的灯光亮度来估计一个地区的经济活动。还有一些研究人员利用机器学习技术从卫星图像中识别富裕和贫穷的村庄。

One group used building density and vegetation cover to identify wealthy and poor neighborhoods.

一组研究人员曾利用建筑密度和植被覆盖来区分富裕和贫穷的社区。

One new study has taken the most detailed look ever. Within a single village, it attempts to identify the poorest individual households. It was correct 62 percent of the time.

一项新研究进行了有史以来最详细的观察。仅在某一个村子里,该研究试图找出最贫穷的单个家庭。正确率可达62%。

The study involved the village of Sauri, in rural Kenya. Sauri was part of the Millennium Villages Project, a poverty alleviation experiment that was launched in 2005. As part of the project, detailed information was collected on the earnings and valuables of each home in Sauri.

这项研究观察的是肯尼亚的农村萨乌瑞。萨乌瑞村是2005年启动的千年村项目的一部分。该项目收集了萨乌瑞村每个家庭的收入和贵重物品的详细资料。

In satellite images of the village, researchers measured the size of each house and studied the agricultural land surrounding it.

在该村的卫星图像中,研究人员测量了每栋房屋的大小,并对其周围的农田进行了研究。

Not surprisingly, smaller homes usually housed poorer people. But the researchers also noted other findings. For example, poorer homes often have bare farm fields in September. In rural Kenya, that usually means farmers are preparing their land for a second crop.

不足为奇的是,小房子里一般住着穷人。但研究人员还有其他发现。例如,较贫困的家庭在9月份常常有光秃秃的农田。在肯尼亚的农村地区,这通常意味着农民们正在为第二轮种植做准备。

Gary Watmough is a geographer at the University of Edinburgh in Scotland and the lead writer of a report on the study. Watmough notes that late-season rains do not always come to this part of Kenya. In fact, they fail to arrive up to half the time.

盖里?沃特姆斯是苏格兰爱丁堡大学的地理学家,也是这项研究报告的主要作者。沃特姆斯指出,肯尼亚的这个地区并不总是在季末降雨。事实上,有一半时间没有季末降雨。

Watmough added that late-season planting is done by poor people "because it's a necessity. "

沃特姆斯还表示,季末农作物主要是穷人种植,“因为这是必要的。”

They either don't have enough land or they need to have that insurance, just in case something else goes wrong, he said.

他说:“他们要么没有足够的土地,要么需要保险,以防出现其他问题。”

Satellite imagery also found poorer households' fields were growing crops for shorter periods of time. They also were not planting their own crops as early as others.

卫星图像还发现,较贫困家庭农田种植农作物的时间都较短。他们也不像其他人那样会早种植自己的作物。

Watmough said, "That was because they were contracting themselves out to plant other, wealthier households' crops first. "

沃特姆斯说:“那是因为他们先把自己承包了出去,先种的其他富裕家庭的庄稼。”

The money they earned from such work went toward buying seeds. But that meant their own crops had less time to grow.

他们从这些工作中赚来的钱都用来买种子。但这意味着他们为自己种的作物没有多少时间生长。

The study demonstrates the possibilities "for satellite data to distinguish between the wealth of you and your neighbor," said David Newhouse, an economist with the World Bank. He called such possibilities "scary. . . but also somewhat exciting. "

世界银行经济学家戴维?纽豪斯说,这项研究证明了“卫星数据可以比较你和邻居的财富”。他称这种可能性“有些可怕……但也令人兴奋”。

Newhouse was not involved with the study.

纽豪斯没有参与这项研究。

The markers of poverty in Sauri will not be the same everywhere. The methods would need to be changed for other areas.

萨乌瑞村的贫穷特征与其他任何地方都不一样。其他领域还是需要更改这些方法。

Experts also say it is not the best idea to use only information from satellite images.

专家们也说,只使用卫星图像信息并不是最好的主意。

The aid group GiveDirectly used satellite images to target donations to people in villages with a high number of thatched roofs on homes. These villages were considered poorer than those with metal on top.

“直接给钱”援助组织利用卫星图像,将捐款目标锁定在屋顶有大量茅草的村庄。人们通常认为这些村庄比那些顶部有金属的村庄更穷。

But people learned what was happening. So some claimed to live in thatched-roof structures next to their metal-roofed homes so they could receive donations.

但后来大家都了解到了事情的真相。所以有些人为了能领到捐款,直到现在都住在他们金属屋顶房子旁边的茅草房中。

GiveDirectly has since changed its methods.

“直接给钱”组织后来改变了它的方法。

Damien Jacques is an expert in remote sensing - the use of satellites or high-flying aircraft to collect information about the Earth. He said there is power in combining satellite data and on-the-ground information.

达米安?雅克是一位遥感专家,即利用卫星或高空飞行器收集地球信息。他说,把卫星数据和地面信息结合起来十分有用。

Jacques said, "Using the two types of data, one that is cheap to collect and very frequently available to complement traditional data that are expensive to collect and not frequent, you can get the best of the two. "

雅克说:“使用两种类型的数据,一种是收集成本低廉的数据,另一种是非常常用的数据,以补充传统数据收集成本高昂且不常用的缺陷,从而在这两种数据中得到最好的。”

It is not known whether changes in poverty can be measured from space. That is something Watmough and other researchers will be investigating. They have survey records from Sauri from 2005 and 2008. The next step is to look for differences in the imagery.

目前还不清楚贫困地区的变化是否可以从太空中衡量。沃特姆斯和其他研究人员将对此进行研究。他们有2005年和2008年沙特阿拉伯研究所的调查记录。下一步就是在图像中寻找差异。

Nobody has ever looked at how poverty has changed over a time period and looked at how a satellite image has changed over that same time period, Watmough said.

沃特姆斯说:“没有人研究过贫困地区的情况在一段时间内是如何变化的,也没有人研究过卫星图像在同一时期内是如何变化的。”

I'm Ashley Thompson.

阿什利?汤姆森为您播报。

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