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刘毅10000词汇学习笔记 lesson 1(1)1.abdomen:part of the body below the chest and diaphragm,containing th

刘毅10000词汇学习笔记 lesson 1(1)

1.abdomen:part of the body below the chest and diaphragm,containing the stomach. 腹部
abdominal(adj) 腹部的 an abdominal operation 腹部手术

belly:(口)front of the human body from the waist to the groin;belly 肚子,胃
with an empty belly 空着肚子
in the belly of a ship 在船腹里
belly out(动词用法):鼓涨,凸出The wind bellied out the sails

2.bereave:使某人丧失(尤指亲属) bereave sb of sb an accident which bereaved him of his wife 使他丧失妻子的事故
the bereaved husband 死了妻子的男人
the bereaved 丧失亲人的人

deprive:take sth away from sb;prevent sb from enjoying or using sth 剥夺sb/sth的sth;阻止某人享有或使用sth
deprive sb/sth of sth
deprive of one's civil rights 剥夺某人的公民权
widespread deprivation 普遍贫困
Missing the holiday was a great deprivation.错失假日是极大的损失。
deprived(adj):贫困的,穷苦的 deprived childhood 贫苦的童年

3。consecrate:devote sth/sb to or reserve sth/sb for a special (esp religious) purpose 把sth/sb 献给sth/sb做某种(尤其宗教)用途 consecrate sth/sb to sth
consecrate one's life to the service of God,to the relief of suffering 献身于为神服务(解除世人痛苦)的事业

devote:give one's time,energy to sth/sb; dedicate 为某人付出,向某人奉献,献身于 devote oneself/sth to sb/sth
devoted(adj):热爱的,非常忠实的,全心全意的 a devoted son 孝子
She is devoted to her children. 她深爱她的孩子。
devotee(n):献身于某事物的人,热心者,某事物的迷恋者;某一宗派的拥护者 a devotee of sport
devotion(n): devotion to sth/sb 深爱,忠心,忠诚

4.evoke:bring to mind(a feeling,memory) 引起或唤起情感,记忆
produce or cause(a response ,reaction) 产生或引起(回应,反应)

invoke:use as a reason for one's action 援用(sth)为行动依据或理由
beg for sth by praying 以祷告祈求某事物
The government has invoked the Official Secrets Act in having thebook banned.政府援引国家机密保密法以禁该书。
invocation(n): invocation to sb 求助于神或法律

习语:get into a groove 养成某种生活习惯

newly furrowed fields 刚犁过的田地

The old bus jolted along 旧公共汽车颠簸而行
jolt sb into/out of sth:使某人受到震惊而采取某种行动
He was jolted out of his lethargy and into action when he realized he had only a short time to finish the article.他意识到须在很短的时间里就得把文章写完,立即振作精神写起来。




8。prowl:小心的悄悄移动;悄悄行经(某处);~ about/around 徘徊
wild animals prowling in the forest 在森林里轻轻行走的野兽
I could hear him prowling around in his bedroom all night.我听到他整夜在卧室里踱来踱去。

bands of hooligans roving round the streets 成群结伙在街上游荡的流氓
习语:have a roving eye 时刻寻找着调情或做风流事的机会

scoop sth out up 铲出,挖出

shovel:用铲铲进 shovel sth into

10.status:地位 身份 职位

situation:状况,处境,局面,形势 位置
situation comedy 情景喜剧

11.:sue对某人提起诉讼,控告某人 sue sb for sth 控告某人要求sth
If you don't complete the work, I will sue you for damages.如果你不把工作做完,我就要控告你支付赔偿。
sue for sth (常用于法庭上)请求 sue for peace 请求和解

indict:(就某事)控告,起诉或告发某人 indict sb for sth
He was indicted for murder.他被控杀人。



刘毅10000词汇学习笔记 lesson 1(2)

 1. bandit: member of a gang of armed robbers 土匪 强盗


2. commemorate :keep a great person or event in people‘s memories 纪念(伟人,大事件等);指(雕像,纪念碑等)作为对某人某事的纪念
We commemorate the founding of our nation with a public holiday。我们放假一天以庆祝国庆。
This memorial commemorates those who died in the war。这座纪念碑是纪念战争中的牺牲者的。

celebrate:mark (a hapy or important day,event)with festivities and rejoicing 庆祝,祝贺

3. defile:(文或修辞)make sth dirty or impure 使某物肮脏或不纯
rivers defiled by pollution 受污染的河流
(特) march in single file or a narrow column 指部队单行或纵队前进

infect:(尤用于被动语态)使某人/某物传染,感染,污染某人/某物 infect sb/sth with
The laboratory animals had been infected with the bacteria。实验室的动物都已受到这种细菌的感染。
infection(n):~ with sth 传染,感染 the infection of the body with bacteria 身体受细菌侵染。

4. deviation:(~ from sth ) not following the normal or expected course、plan 偏离正常或原定的路线,计划 ;偏差
deviation from the rules 违背规则
deviate(v):(~ from sth )偏离路线,标准;背离

delegate:(~ sb to sth )挑选或委派某人作代表;挑选或委派某人执行;将(权利、职责)委托给下级,授权给;
delegate sb to a conference 委托某人作代表出席会议
The new manager was delegated toreorganize the department。派这位新经理重新组织该部门。
The job had to be delegated to an assistant。这项工作得交给助手去做。

5. fortitude:(在痛苦、危险或困难面前表现出的)勇气、坚韧和自制力
He bore the pain with great fortitude。他以极大得毅力忍受了痛苦。

He showed remarkable endurance throughout his illness。他生病得整个过程都表现出非凡的忍耐力。
(特)endurance 作定语 endurance test 耐力测验

6. inconsolable:that cannot be comforted 不能安慰的,无法慰藉的
The children were inconsolable when their father died。这些孩子因为丧父而悲伤不已。
console sb on/for sth 安慰,慰问某人 Nothing could console him when his pet died。

depress(v):make sb sad and without enthusiasm 使某人忧愁、消沉、沮丧;将某物压下,推下,拉下;(尤指贸易)不活跃,不景气
Wet weather always depresses me。我在阴雨天总是心灰意懒。
depress a piano key 按下钢琴键
depress sales 使销售额下降

7. nibble:(~ at sth)小口咬某物,轻咬;对(好意,提议)谨慎的表示有意接受
fish nibbling (at) the bait 鱼轻咬鱼饵
He nibbled at my idea, but would not make a definite decision。他对我的想法颇感兴趣,但不做出决定。

bite:(~ into sth) 咬某人(某物)
She bit into the apple。她咬了一口苹果。

8. pageant:盛装的游行,露天演出的历史剧;壮丽的场面,伟观

(习语)make an exhibition of oneself(贬)当中出丑,出洋相

9. scourge:(用以打人的)鞭子;(比喻)引起灾害的事物或人
The new boss was the scourge of the inefficient。新老板来了以后,不称职的人就遭殃。

As a teacher, he is a disaster。他是个很糟糕的教师。

10. tumble:使某人倒下或坠落(尤指身不由己或猛劲儿),但通常并无重伤
tumble down the stairs 从楼梯上摔下

fall down/over :倒下(尤指突然间),倒塌
fall away/off 向下倾斜
fall into sth 进入某种状态,变成



刘毅10000词汇学习笔记 lesson 1(3)


1、afflict:(v 通常用于被动语态)使某人某物苦恼、疼痛或悲伤 ~ sb/sth with sth
Severe drought has afflicted the countryside。严重的干旱使乡村深受其害。
She is afflicted with(suffers from)arthritis。她患关节炎。
affliction(n)疼痛,折磨,悲痛;造成痛苦的事物 help people in affliction 帮助受苦的人

Towards the end of the marathon several runners showed signs of distress。马拉松比赛接近终点时,有些参赛者显出极难受的样子。
Her death was a great distress to the family。她去世后全家人极为悲痛。
A ship in distress 遇险的船
distressing (adj)令人痛苦的,令人苦恼的

(n)strong criticism or condemnation 指责,谴责,斥责
Two MPs were censured by the speaker。有两个议员遭到议长的斥责。
Pass a vote of censure on sb 通过对某人的不信任投票

blame:(v)责备,责怪,指责,归咎于 ~ sb for/on sth
If you fail the exam you’ll only have yourself to blame。你若考试不及格,只能怪你自己。
(谚)A bad workman blames his tools。拙匠埋怨工具差。
(习)be to blame for sth 对某坏事应负责,应受责备。
Which driver was to blame for the accident?

3、dissimulate:(v)hide or disguise one’s thought or feelings;dissemble 隐藏,掩盖思想感情;假装

deceive:(v)~ sb/oneself into doing sth 欺骗某人做某事,使自己信以为真去做某事
We were deceived into believing that he could help us。我们被骗了,还以为他能帮助我们。
deception(n)欺骗, deception on the public 欺骗公众

4、flog(v)重重责打某人(尤指用棍棒或鞭子);(口)卖给某人某物 ~ sth to sb

spank a child’s bottom 掴小孩的屁股

5、inscribe:(v)在某物上写、题(诗句,名字等)(尤指做正式的永久性的记录)~ A on/in B ~ B with A inscription(n)题字,题名,铭文


6、meddle(v)(贬)干预,干涉,管闲事 ~ in sth ;乱动、瞎动不应动的事情 ~ with sth
Don’t meddle in my affairs。别管我的事。
Who’s been meddling with my papers?谁乱翻了我的文件?

intervene(vi)指人干涉,调停,调解,斡旋 ~ in sth ~ between A and B;指时间进入,介入,在其间;(指事情发生)以阻碍(某事);
intervene in a dispute 调解纷争
during the years that intervened 这期间的若干年

Stop posturing in front of that mirror。别在镜子前摆姿势了。


8、rummage(vi、n)翻找或搜寻某物 ~ among/in/through sth for sth ~ about/around

ransack(vt)彻底搜寻 ~ sth for sth

9、spout(v)指液体喷出,涌出 ~ out of/from
water spouting from a broken water-pipe 从破裂的水管中喷出的水

Blood was pouring from the wound。血从伤口中涌出。

skies traversing the slopes 穿过斜坡的滑雪者

intersect(vt)(尤用于被动语态)横断,横切;(指线条、道路)相交,交叉 ~ sth with sth
The lines AB and CD intersect at E。直线AB与直线CD相交于点E。

wistful eyes 露出渴求目光的眼睛

yearning(n)渴望,热望 ~ for sb/sth



刘毅词汇10000 学习笔记lesson 1(4)


An amicable settlement was reached。已达成和解。

an amiable character 温柔的性格

2、blizzard:severe snowstorm 暴风雪

snowstorm:heavy fall of snow,esp with a strong wind暴风雪,雪暴

3、cruise:(v)(航船)巡游,巡航;以中等速度行驶 ~ about
a destroyer cruising about in the sea 在海上游弋的驱除舰
Taxis cruised about,hoping to pick up late fares 出租车以中等速度转来转去,希望能招徕到晚归的顾客。

voyaging across the Indian Ocean 作穿越印度洋的航行

Smallpox has almost been eradicated 天花几乎已消灭。

extirpate social evils 根除社会弊病

We began to see a glimmering of a solution to the problem 我们开始看到问题可望解决的迹象。

gleam in sb’s eyes 酝酿中的意念,令人向往的人和事物

6、lump:(v) ~ sb/sth together 将人或物归并在一起考虑,将人或物同等分类或对待
We have lumped all the advanced students in the single class。我们把程度高的学生都编在一个班里。

block:(v)阻碍,堵塞 ~ sth up

7、ransack:(v)彻底搜索某处 ~ sth for sth ;抢劫,掠夺
ransack the house for those papers 满屋子寻找那些文件

rummage:(v)翻找,搜寻 ~ among/in/through sth for sth

8、slash:(v)用剑、刀砍 ~ at sth(with sth).
gash:(v)割一道伤口 ~ sth on sth
gash one’s arm on a piece of broken glass 胳膊被玻璃碎片划了一个大口子

Tired from her walk she slumped down onto the sofa。她走累了,一屁股坐到沙发上。


10、vogue:(n)流行的或盛行的式样 ~ for sth
a new vogue for low-heeled shoes 低跟鞋新潮流

dressed in the latest fashion 穿着入时的



刘毅词汇学习笔记lesson 1(5)


1、ascribe(v) ~ sth to sb/sth 认为某事物是由某人造成或写成;归功于、归咎于某人(某事物)
He ascribed his failure to bad luck。他把失败归咎于运气不好。
This play is usually ascribed to Shakespeare。这个剧本一般认为是莎士比亚所作。
ascribable(adj)(作表语)~ to sb/sth 可归于某人某事物的
His success is ascribable simply to hard work。 他的成功是由于勤奋。

attribute(v)~ sth to sb/sth 认为某事物是属于某人的,由某人引起的
He attributes his success to hard work and a bit of luck。他认为他的成功是勤奋加上一点运气得来的。
Her greatest attribute was her kindness。她最大的特点是为人厚道。

Democracy is a bulwark of freedom。民主是自由的保障。

safeguard(n) ~ against sb/sth 安全措施,保护性措施
We will introduce legal safeguard against fraud。我们为制止诈骗活动要采取法律保护措施。

3、dubious(adj) ~ about sth/doing sth (尤作表语)半信半疑,可疑;(贬)名声不大好的,不可靠的; 结果未定的,不能确定的;
I remain dubious about his motives。我对他的动机心存疑虑。

The weather looks rather doubtful。天气看起来靠不住。

4、 facet(n)宝石或首饰的小平面,刻面;事情或问题的方面
There are many facets to this question。这个问题有很多方面。


heed a warning 注意一项警告
(习语)take heed of sth 听从 Take heed of your doctor’s advice 听从医生的劝告


We all huddled around the radio to hear the news。我们围坐在收音机旁听新闻广播。

gather(v)聚集,集合;收集,收拢(分散的东西) ~ sth together/up

7、mumble(v)含糊的说某事,唧咕 ~ about sth ~ sth to sb
What are you mumbling about?你在唧咕说些什么

The wind murmured in the trees 风在林中低鸣。









 刘毅词汇10000学习笔记 lesson 2(1)


1、absolve(vt) ~ sb from/of sth 开脱某人(的罪责),宣布免除某人(所受的责难)
The court absolved the accused man。法官判决被告无罪。

★ exonerate(vt)(尤用于被动语态)宣布某人无罪过 ~ sb from sth
He was exonerated from all responsibility for the accident。已确定他无须对事务负任何责任。

He is without bias。他没有偏见

★ prejudice(n)偏见,成见

3、contend(vi) ~ with/against sb/sth ~ for sth 与竞争对手争夺,与谈人争夺
Several teams are contending for the prize。有几个队在争夺锦标。

★ compete(vi) ~ against/with sb/in sth/for sth 竞争、对抗、比赛
a house that has competed in the Grand National four times。参加过4次“英国大赛马”的马

She deplored his actions。她谴责他令人愤慨的行为
◎ deplorable(adj)应受谴责的

★ lament(v) ~ for/over sb/sth 为某人(某事物)感到悲痛,哀悼
lament for a dead friend 哀悼亡友

a fracture of leg 腿部骨折

★ shatter(vi)使某物突然而剧烈的裂成碎片,粉碎
The pot shattered as it hit the floor。罐子掉在地板上摔割粉碎。

The magnitude of the epidemic was frightening。这种流行病传播范围之广令人惊惶不安。

★ bulk(n)体积,数量,容量

(喻)the pith of sth 最重要的部分,精髓

★ essence(n)本质,精髓,要素
She was the essence of kindness。她本性善良。

8、relish(n) ~ for sth (美食等的)享受,滋味;美味,乐趣;兴趣,吸引力,感染力
She savoured the joke with relish。她对这个笑话很感兴趣。

★ zest(n) ~ for sth 极大的快乐或兴奋;热情,兴趣
He entered into our plans with terrific zest。他满腔热情的参加了我们的项目。

9、sneak(v) ~ on sb to sb (贬,尤为儿童用语)告状,打小报告
She sneaked on her best friend to the teacher。她向老师告了她最好的朋友一状

★ lurk(v)埋伏,潜伏;隐藏,隐匿
He‘s usually lurking near the bar 他通常出没在酒吧附近。

Have you heard the good tidings?你听到那个好消息了么?

★ information(n)信息,消息



刘毅词汇10000学习笔记 lesson 2(2)


1 aghast(adj)(尤作表语) ~ at sth 惊恐,惊奇
He stood aghast at the terrible sight。他被那可怕的景象吓呆了。

★ astonished(adj)(通常做表语)感到惊讶,吃惊
She looked astonished when she heard the news。她听到那消息时显得很吃惊。
◎ astonishing(adj)使人惊讶的,惊人的
I find it quite astonishing that none of you like the play。我感到惊讶的是你们谁都不喜欢那个剧目。
There was an astonishing number of applicants of the job。申请这份工作的人数多的惊人。
The news astonished everyone。这个消息使大家感到吃惊。

We could not cumber our thought with his reproaches。我们不会因为他的谴责而妨碍我们的想法。

★ hinder(vt) ~ sth/sb from sth/doing sth 阻碍,妨碍某人某事物的进展,阻挠或耽误某人某事物。
Production was hindered by lack of materials。由于缺乏原料,生产陷入停顿。

The governor decreed a day of mourning。地方长官发布哀悼一日的命令。
Fate decreed that they would not meet again。他们受命运的安排再也不能相会。

★ determine(v)确定某事物,决定;测定,找出(某未知事物),算出;决定做某事 ~ on/upon sth
determine a date for a meeting 确定会议日期
determine exactly what happened 查出究竟发生了什么事

4、frolic(vi)(pt、pp frolicked) ~ about 嬉戏
Children frolicked about in the swimming-pool。孩子们在游泳池里嬉戏。

★ frisk(vi)(指动物)欢快的跳跑
Lambs frisked about in the meadow。小羊在草地上蹦来蹦去。

5、intercourse(n) ~ with sb ~ between sb and sb (与国家,人等的)交际,交往

★ relation(n)关系,关联 ~ between A and B

6、menace(n)威胁,恐吓;~ to sb/sth 进行威胁恐吓的人
These weapons are a menace to world peace。这些武器就是对世界和平的一种威胁。

★ intimidated(vt) ~ sb into sth/ into sth 恐吓、威胁某人做某事
intimidate a witness 恐吓目击证人。

The country’s economy was on the edge of the precipice。该国的经济已处于崩溃边缘。

★ cliff(n)悬崖,峭壁(尤指在海边的)


★ shrine(n)神圣的地方和处所,圣坛

9、sprout(vi) ~ out/up from sth 长出来,出现,发芽,萌芽
new buds sprouting on the trees。树上长出的新芽

★ grow(v)生长,长大

10、tread(pt trod pp trodden) ~ on sth/sb 踩,行走,踏
She trod lightly so as to not to wake the baby。她走路很清,以免影响孩子。

★ trample(n)踩坏或踩伤某物
The campers had trampled the corn down。野蛮的人踩坏了庄稼



刘毅词汇10000学习笔记 lesson 2(3)


1、ammunition(n)supply of bullets bombs grenades 弹药;用于争论中的事实和论据
The had to meet the attack with very little ammunition。他们不得不以极少的弹药应战。

★ bullet(n)子弹
He was killed by a single bullet in the heart。他被射中心脏身亡。

a doting mother 宠爱孩子的母亲
◎ dote(vi) ~ on sb/sth 喜爱、溺爱某人某事物
She dotes on her grandchildren。她十分钟爱她的孙儿女。grandchildren。她十分钟爱她的孙儿女。

★fond(adj)(做定语)慈爱的,深情的;(表语) ~ of sb/doing sth 喜爱某人,喜爱做某事
a fond look 申请的目光
◎ fondly 亲爱的,温柔的
◎ fondness(n) ~ for sb/sth 喜爱,深情
His fondness for his eldest grandchild。他对长孙的钟爱

an engrossing story 引人入胜的故事

★ absorb(vt)吸收某事物,吸进;将某物某人合并,并吞;减轻(冲击、困难等的)作用或影响;完全吸引某人的注意力或兴趣
Buffers absorbed most of the shock。缓冲器使震动减少了许多。
His business absorbs him。他专心致志的处理业务。
◎ absorbing(adj)十分吸引人的
◎ absorbent(n)能吸收水分等的物质

★ adsorb(vt)(常指固体)吸附气体或液体至其表面

4、gush(vi)~ out from sth (突然大量的)流出,涌出,泻出; ~ over sb/sth (贬)滔滔不绝的说,过分热心的说
(n)(尤做单数)涌出 a gush of

★ flow(vi)指液体流动
His tears flow freely down her face。他眼泪止不住顺着脸颊往下流


★ unconquerable(adj)(障碍)难以克服的,难以征服的

The hostages went through a dreadful ordeal。每个人质都经历了可怕的折磨。

★ trial(n)审问、审讯、审理、审判;对能力、质量、性能能的测试,试验,考验;(不得不容忍的)讨厌的人或事物
Commit sb for trial 将某人拘禁候审
Put a car through safety trials。对汽车进行安全性能测验
Her child is a trial to his teachers。她的孩子让老师很伤脑筋
(词组)go on trial 或 stand trial for sth 受审判
She went on trial for murder。她因涉嫌谋杀罪而受审。
(词组)on trial 在试验中,在测试中
Take the machine on trial for a week,把机器试验一星期
(词组)put sb on trial for sth 使某人被控告而受审
She was put on trial for fraud 她因诈骗罪而受审
(习语)trial and error 反复试验,从中找出失败的解决办法
learn by trial and error 通过反复试验学习

wear a dress pouched over a belt。穿着腰带上方蓬松的连衣裙

★ sack(n)大口袋(用以存放或装运水泥、煤、面粉、马铃薯)
◎ sackful(n)一袋的量 two sackfuls of flour 两袋面粉

8、screech(vi,vt) ~ (sth )(out)at sb 尖叫,尖声喊出;(n)尖利刺耳的声音
She screeched insults at us 她尖着嗓子骂我们。

★ shriek(vi) ~ with sth 尖声大叫,激动的尖叫

★ height(n)高度,身高

Badgers had undermined the foundations of the church。獾在这座教堂的地基处打了洞。

★ erode(vt)(尤用于被动语态)(指酸、雨、风等)侵蚀或腐蚀
Metals are eroded by acids 金属能北酸腐蚀。



刘毅词汇10000学习笔记 lesson 2(4)

1、assess:(vt)确定,评定(某数额) ~ sth at sth;确定,评定(某事物)的价值,估价;估计、评定某事物的质量 ~ sth as sth
assess the damage at ¥350 评定损害赔偿金为350元
have a house assessed by a valuer 由估价者给房子估价
I’d assess your chance as extremely low。我估计你成功的机会极微。
◎ assessment(n)确定,评定;评价,看法;核定的付款额
◎ assessor(n)估价员,评税员

★ appraise:(vt)assess the value or quality of sb/sth 评价,估价,鉴定
It would be unwise to buy the house before having it appraised。买房子不事先估价是不明智的。
◎ appraisal(n)评价,估价,鉴定

chamber concert 室内音乐会

★ room(n)房间,室;(pl)一套房间(通常指租的),寓所;机会,范围,余地 ~ for sth
There’s plenty of room for improvement in your work 你的工作还有很多改进的余地
◎ roomful(a)一室所能容纳的数量,一屋子的
◎ roomy(adj)宽敞的
(习语)There’s no room to swing a cat。这地方过于狭小。

3、 disdain(v)feeling that sb is not good enough 鄙视、轻视,蔑视
Treat other people’s idea with desdain。蔑视别人的意见

★ despise(vt) ~ sb/sth for sth 鄙视、藐视、看不起
Strike-breakers are often despised by their workmates。破坏罢工的人常为同事所不齿

4、 espy(vt)(旧)看到某人某事物
Was it you I espied jogging in the park this morning?我今天早上看到有个人在公园里慢跑,是你么?

5、 gloss(n)平滑表面上的光泽或光亮;用以产生光泽的物质;(比喻)虚假的外表,虚饰
(v)~ over sth 简略的、浮皮潦草的或敷衍的处理某事(以求避开难堪)
With this polish you can give a good high gloss to the wood。使用这种光蜡可以使木器表面非常平滑光亮
gloss paint 清漆
gloss over the awkward facts 掩饰令人尴尬的事实
◎ glossy(adj)光滑的,光亮的

★ sleek(adj)smooth and glossy 光滑而有光泽的;(贬)指人保养的很好的,脑满肠肥的;时髦的


★ doorman(n)看门人

7、packet(n)(美式英语常作 package)包装商品的小盒、小袋

★ parcel(n)指包起来(常指用牛皮纸)邮寄的物品


★ lectern(n)(台面倾斜用于放讲稿的)讲台,(教堂用的)读经台

The meet will scorch if you don’t lower the gas 如果你不把煤气关小点肉就糊了。

★ singe(vi)烧焦,烧糊

The crowd surged into the stadium。观众涌入体育场。

★ rise(v)上升,达到


★ implement(n)工具,器具;(v)使事物生效、履行、实施



刘毅词汇10000学习笔记 lesson 2(5)



 ★ dagger(n)短剑、匕首

(习语)at daggers drawn with sb 与某人剑拔弩张

        look daggers at sb 对某人怒目而视


2、compassion(n) ~ for sb 同情,怜悯

           The plight of the refugees arouses our compassion。难民的困苦引起我们的同情

◎ compassionate(adj)表示怜悯的,有同情心的

★ sympathy(n) ~ for/towards sb 同情,同情心;(pl)慰问,(感情上的)支持,赞同

           Out of sympathy for the homeless children,he gave them shelter for the night。他怀着恻隐之心留那些无家可归的孩子过夜。

           You have my deepest sympathies on the death of your wife。对于令夫人的去世,谨向您表示最深切的慰问。



           She was detained in the office by unexpected callers。有些临时访客把她耽搁到办公室里了。

◎ detainee(n)被拘留者

 ★ retard(vt)使某物放缓或延迟;阻止某人某事物的进步和发展

           retard the spark of an engine 使点火延迟

           Lack of sun retards plant growth。光照不足则植物生长缓慢

◎ retarded(adj)身体或(尤指)精神发育迟缓的,智力迟钝的



           rival factions within the party 党内的对立派别

 ★ clique(n)小集团,派系、朋党

           The club is dominated by a small clique of intellectuals。这俱乐部被知识分子小集团把持着



          Add orange paint to get a warmer hue。

 ★ color(色彩,颜色)



          Brave deeds adding luster ot one’s name。使自己扬名增光的英勇业绩。

 ★ shimmer (vi)发闪烁的微光

         The surface of the road shimmered in the heat of the sun



7、persevere(vi)  ~ at/in/with sth   ~ with sb (褒)坚持做某事(尤指不畏困难)

         You’ll need to persevere if you want the business to succeed。要想事业成功,就要持之以恒

◎ perseverance(n)坚持不懈,持之以恒

 ★ persist(vi)  ~ in sth 坚持,执意

He will persist in riding that dreadful bicycle。他执意要骑那辆破自行车。


8、rave(vi) ~ at/against/about sb 胡言乱语,说胡话,说疯话

The patient began to rave incoherently at the nurse。病人对护士说起胡话来。

 ★ effervesce(vi)(指液体)释放出气泡,咝咝起泡了



soldiers slain in battle 在战斗中被杀害的士兵

 ★ kill(vt)致死,杀死,扼杀;使某事物失败,遭拒绝

           The guard was killed with a high-powered rifle。那士兵被杀伤力大的火枪击毙了。



           Take two of  the tablets three times daily after meal。每日三次,每次两片,饭后服用

 ★ pill(n)药丸

          He has to take six pills a day until the recovers 他每天要福6粒药丸直到痊愈。



the voluptuous enjoyment of a hot bath  热水浴的舒适享受

 ★ sensuous(adj)刺激感官的,感觉官能的

            the sensuous appeal of her painting 她的画使人赏心悦目。

刘毅词汇10000学习笔记 lesson 3(1)


1、access(n) ~ to sth  means of approaching or entering (进入或接近某地的)方法,通路

          The village is easy of access。到那个村子的路很容易走。

          The only access to the farmhouse is across the field。要到那农舍去唯有穿过田地。

           ~ to sth/sb (使用某物或接近某人的)机会,权利

          Students must have access to a good library。学生要有使用好图书馆的便利条件。

◎ accessible(adj) ~ to sb 可接近的,可进入的,可使用的


★ approach(v)(在时间或空间上)接近或靠近某人某事物

           The time is approaching when we must think about buying a new house。我们要想一想买新房子的事情了,时机即将来临。

           As you approach the town the first building you see is the church。接近那座城镇时,首先看到的就是教堂。


           Few writers even begin to approach Shakespeare’s greatness。莎士比亚的伟大,鲜有作家能望其项背。

(vt)begin to tackle 着手处理(事务、难题等)

Before trying to solve the puzzle,let us consider the best way to approach it。想要解决这一难题,咱们先来考虑一下如何着手为上策。


At her approach,the children ran off。她走近的时候,孩子们全跑开了


That’s the nearest approach to a smile he ever makes。那已算他作出的最近乎微笑的表示了。


◎ approachable(adj)(指人或物)可接近的



2、beckon(v)(以手、臂、头部的动作)召唤某人(通常使之走近或跟随自己) ~ to sb to do sth

City life beckons many a country boy。都市生活吸引着许多乡村子弟

         ~ sb in, on, over, etc  示意某人按指定的方向行动

The girl standing at the mouth of the cave beckoned him in。站在洞口的一个女孩摆手叫他进去。


★ signal(v)(不用于被动) ~ to sb/sth for sth 发信号传达(某信息),用信号与某人通讯

           signaling wildly with one’s arms 奋力挥臂打信号



3、concur(vi)~ with sb in sth 同意,表示意见一致

She expressed her opposition to the plan,and I fully concur with her in this matter。她对计划表示反对,在这一问题上我完全同意她的看法。


Everything concurred to produce a successful result。所有的事都同时发生而产生了一个圆满的结局。


★ agree(vi)~ to sth 同意,答应

           ~ with 同意,与某人意见一致



4、denounce(vt) ~ sb to sb as sth (向当局)告发某人

           An informer denounced him to the police as a terrorist。检举人已向警方告发他是恐怖分子。


           Union officials denounced the action as a breach of the agreement。工会负责人谴责这一行动破坏了协议。


★ accuse(vt)~ sb of sth 指责某人有错,犯罪或犯法;指控,控告,谴责

accuse sb of cheating  谴责某人欺诈

◎ accusatory(adj)指责的,谴责的,控告的

       accusatory remarks,glances 谴责的言语、目光



5、fray(n)the fray(修辞或谑)打斗,争吵


       Constant rubbing will fray even the thickest rope。再粗的绳子也禁不住总磨


★ shred(n)(尤做复数)(撕下、切下、刮下)的细条、碎片

The jacket was torn to shreds by the barbed wire。那件夹克让铁丝网给挂碎了。


shredding top-secret documents 用碎纸机把绝密文件切成碎片

◎ shredder(n)切碎机,碎纸机



6、hamper(vt)prevent the movement or activity;hinder sb/sth 束缚某人;妨碍某人某事物

           Our progress was hampered by the bad weather。我们前进时受到了恶劣天气的阻碍。


★ hinder(vt) ~ sb/sth from doing sth   prevent the progress  obstruct or delay sb 阻碍、妨碍某事物的进展,阻挠或耽误某人

           Production was hindered by lack of materials。由于缺乏原料,生产陷入停顿。




           Violent crime is only one of the maladies afflicting modern society。暴力犯罪仅危害现代社会的弊病之一。


★ ailment(n)小病

           He’s prone to minor ailments。他动不动就生点小病。



8、plod(vi) ~ along/on 迈着沉重的脚步行走;艰难的行走;缓慢的进行某工作

        We plodded on through the rain for several hours。 我们在雨中跋涉了几个小时。

  ~ away 持续并缓慢(艰难的)工作

He plodded away all night at the accounts but didn’t finish them in time。他彻夜不眠的清理帐目,却未能按时完成。


★ trudge(vi)(因疲惫,走长路)缓慢而吃力的走

He trudged 20 miles。 他吃力的走了20英里。




the remnants of a shattered army 被击溃的军队残余部分

remnants of one’s former glory自己过去的光荣见证


★ residue(n)(通常做单数)剩余物,残余



snoring noisily with his mouth open 张着嘴大声打鼾


★ wheeze(vi)呼吸时有声响(指由胸部发出的哨声,如因哮喘、支气管炎)



11、tinge(vt)(尤用于被动语态) ~ sth with sth 使某物稍染颜色;使某物略受影响

admiring tinged with envy 稍含妒忌的赞美


★ tincture(n) ~ of sth (事物或性质的)些微迹象或特色

a tincture of heresy 稍有异端意味





刘毅词汇10000学习笔记 lesson 3(2)


1、bicker(vi) ~ with sb over/about sth (为小事)争吵

The children are always bickering over their toys 孩子们常常为了玩具争吵


★ wrangle(vi,n) ~ with sb about/over sth  与某人为某事争吵或争辩

They were involved in a long legal wrangle with the company over payment。他们与那家公司在付款问题上陷入长期的法律纠纷中。



2、contrive(vt)plan cleverly or deceitfully;invent;design 谋划或策划某事,发明,设计


                contrive to live on a small income 靠微薄收入精打细算过日子

◎ contrived(adj)(贬)人为的,策划的,虚假的,非自发的

          a contrived incident intended to mislead the newspaper 企图蒙蔽报界的人为事件。


★ hatch(vi)~ out (指小鸟、小鱼)从卵里孵出

The hen hatches out her young by sitting on the eggs  母鸡伏在蛋上孵小鸡。

        (vt) ~ sth out/up 策划(阴谋),拟定(计划)

What mischief are those children hatching up?那些孩子在琢磨什么鬼花样?




I was dazzled by his headlights。 他的车头灯照的我目眩。


He was dazzled by her beauty and wit 她的聪明美貌使他为之神魂颠倒。


★ glare(n)耀眼的光;怒视,恶狠狠的注视

           (习)in the glare of publicity 经常在报纸电视上的,受公众瞩目

         (vi) ~ at sb/sth 怒视,恶狠狠的盯视

He didn’t shout and swear,but just glared sliently at me。他不喊不骂,只是默默怒视着我。

◎    glaring(adj)令人目眩的,耀眼的;生气的,凶狠的




He fumbled the ball and then dropped it。他笨手笨脚的漏接了球。

         (vi) ~ at/for/with sth 笨手笨脚的寻找某物

She fumbled with her notes and began to speak 她手忙脚乱的翻出讲稿,然后开始讲话


★ grope(vi) ~ about for/after sth 摸索,探索

a tricky question which groping him for an answer。迫使他搜寻答案的棘手问题




Today’s attack has seriously impaired attempts to achieve peace in the area。今日发动的攻击严重损害了在该地区谋求和平的努力。


★ damage(n) ~ to sth 损失,损害,损毁; (复数)损害赔偿金

         (v) 损害,损坏

                damage relations between two countries 损害两国的关系




                He felt mortified 他深感难堪

◎ mortifying(adj)使人丢脸的

◎ mortification(n)难堪


★ humiliate(vt)使某人感到羞耻或不光彩,使丧失尊严或自尊

                He felt humiliated by her scornful remarks 他听到她那些嘲讽的话而感到屈辱。

◎ humiliation(n)受辱




Which country is the predominant member of the alliance?哪个国家在联盟中居于支配地位?


 Her predominant character is honesty。 她最为突出的优点是诚实。


★ outstanding(adj)杰出的,优秀的,


   The outstanding features of the landscape。景色的显著特点。




Conditions in the kitchen was not very sanitary。厨房环境不太卫生


★ hygienic(adj)卫生的,清洁的

hygienic conditions 卫生的环境

◎ hygiene(n)卫生学





★ purse(n)小钱袋,小钱包



10、warrant(n) ~ for sth 授权命令

                issue a warrant for sb’s arrest 发出逮捕某人的逮捕状


                 a travel warrant 通行证

           (n) ~ for sth/doing sth 正当理由,根据 

                He had no warrant for doing that 他那样做毫无道理

(vt) 证明正当、有理或恰当

    Nothing can warrant such severe punishment。这样严厉de惩罚毫无依据。


★ assurance(n)自信,把握;保证,担保

◎ assure(v)明确或有信心的告诉某人,向某人保证

              They were assured that everything possible was done 已经向他们保证,凡是可能做的都做到了。

         (v) ~ sb/oneself of sth 使某人(自己)对某事物确信不疑或觉得肯定无误

              They tried to assure him of their willingness to work 他们尽力使他相信他们乐于工作。

◎   assured(或者self-assured)(adj)自信的,有把握的





刘毅词汇10000学习笔记 lesson 3(3)


1、allocate(vt) ~ sth to sb/sth  assign sth for a special perpuse(为某目的)配给,分配某事物给某人

allocate funds to us for repair work 拨出经费给我们做修理费

        ◎ allocation(n) 配给,分配,拨出


★ apportion(vt) ~ sth among/to sb   give sth as a share分配某事物,分派某事物  

I don’t wish to apportion blame among you/to any of you。我不愿意怪罪大家。

◎ apportionment(n)分配,分派





          gangs of youths brawling in the streets 在街上打打闹闹的一帮青年


★ fight(vi) ~ against 争取克服、战胜、摧毁或防止某事物

fight against poverty 与贫困做斗争

The two dogs are fighting over a bone。 两只小狗为一块骨头撕咬。

(vi) ~ about/over sth 争吵,争论

        It’s a trivial matter and not worth fighting about。区区小事不值得争吵。

(词组)fight back  反击,回击,抵抗

        After a disastrous first half the team fought back to level the match。该队在上半场惨败后重整旗鼓以求扳回平局。

(词组)fight sb/sth off 抵抗或击退某人某事物

        fighting off repeated enemy attack 击退敌人一次又一次的进攻。




They’ve grown rather cynical about democracy他们逐渐感到所谓民主制度也不过尔尔。


★ sarcastic(adj)讽刺的,讥讽的,挖苦的

a sarcastic person 好挖苦的人

◎ sarcasm(n)讽刺,挖苦


★ contemptuous(adj)鄙视的,表示轻蔑的

He threw it away with contemptuous gesture。他带着不屑一顾的样子把它扔了。


★ sneer(vi) ~ at sb/sth 嘲笑,讥笑某人某事物 

I resent the way he sneer at our efforts 我们已十分努力而他还讥笑我们,我很反感。



4、embellish(vt) ~ sth with sth 美化、装饰或修饰某物;渲染、添枝加叶(使之更有趣,可笑)

           a dress embellished with lace and ribbons 有花边和饰带的连衣裙

           He often embellishes the tales of his travels。他常给他的旅游趣闻添枝加叶。

◎ embellishment(n)装饰、渲染、润色;装饰之物


★ adorn(vt) ~ sth/sb/oneself with sth 装饰某物、某人、自己,装点,佩戴,装扮

The dancer was adorned with flowers 跳舞的人戴着许多花。




a gallant soldier 勇敢的战士

a gallant ship 华丽的船

◎ gallantry(n)勇气,勇敢,英勇

       He won many hearts by his gallantry。他以殷勤热情赢得芳心无数。


★ splendid(adj)华丽的,壮丽的,堂皇的

a splendid house 富丽堂皇的房子



6、immerse(vt)  ~ sth in sth 使某物浸于某液体中

immerse the plant in water 把植物浸在水中

          (vi) ~ oneself in sth 使自己专心于,沉浸于

He immersed himself totally in his work。 他埋头于工作。


★ plunge(vi)使某物突然而猛力投入,穿入,进入等;陷入;使某物突然前移或跌落

They plunged into the water 他们跳进了水中

The news plunged us in despair。我们听到那消息后就陷入了绝望。




dress in a very ostentatious manner 穿的非常显眼

◎ ostentation(n)(对财富、知识、技巧等的)夸耀、炫耀、卖弄

        Their daughter’s wedding reception was sheer ostentations 他们女儿大办婚事纯粹是为了炫耀。


★ showy(adj)炫耀的,显示的




a presentiment of trouble ahead 要出乱子的预感


★ foreboding(n) 要有危险或坏事的预感

              She had a sinister foreboding that the plane would crash。她有个不祥的预感,飞机要失事。

◎ forebode(v) 预示(尤指坏事)




She pushed her chair back from the table,satiated。她把椅子从餐桌处向后挪了挪,再也吃不下了。


★ surfeit(n)(通常做单数)过度,过量(尤指饮食)

a surfeit of rich food is bad for you。多吃油腻食物对身体有害。

          (vt) ~  sb/oneself with/on sth 向某人/自己过多的提供某物(尤指食物)




                wheat undulating in the breeze 微风中起伏的麦浪

◎ undulation(n)波动,起伏


★ wave(vi)(指固定的物体)往复或上下摆动

               a flag waving in the breeze 微风中飘扬的旗子





刘毅词汇10000学习笔记 lesson 3(4)



                   lords and ladies in rich apparel


★ garment(n)(文或谑)(一件)衣服

                   a strange shapeless garment that had once been a jacket 用夹克改成的怪模怪样的衣服



2、cajole(vt) ~ sb into/out of sth 哄骗某人作某事,劝诱某人(指用恭维或欺骗的手段)

                   She was cajoled into accepting a new contract。她受人哄骗而接受了新合同

~ sth out of sb  以哄骗的手段从某人处得到(信息)

     The confession had to be cajoled out of him 连哄带劝他才坦白。


★ coax(vt) ~ sb into/out of doing sth 劝诱或哄骗某人(指慢慢的、逐渐的劝诱)

                    He coaxed her into letting him take her to the cinema。他哄的她同意带她去看电影

~ sth out of/from sb 用好言好语劝说某人

     I had to coax information out of him 我得用好话套出他掌握的情况。



3、discard(vt) 扔掉,丢弃(某物);不再使用,不再穿戴(已没用的物品)

                   discard one’s winter clothes in spring 春天里换下冬装


★ reject(vt)拒绝接受(某人某事物)

                   She rejected his offer of marriage。她拒绝了他的求婚


    Imperfect articles are rejected by our quality control 我们进行质量检验时,有缺陷的产品均应剔除。




                   an effete civilization 没落的文明     an effete young man 无精打采的年轻人


★ exhausted(adj)极其疲倦的




                   He grudges her earning more than he does 他妒忌她挣的比他多


★ resent(vt)(因受到伤害、侮辱等)而感到愤恨、怨恨或气愤

                   I bitterly resent your criticism 我对你批评我的话十分反感



6、kidnap(v) 诱拐、绑架、劫持

                   Two businessmen have been kidnapped by terrorists 有两个商人让恐怖分子给劫持了


★ abduct(vt)诱拐 绑架

◎ abduction(n)




a non-aggression pact 互不侵犯条约


★ treaty(n)(国家之间的)条约、协定

sign a peace treaty with a neighbouring country 与邻国签订和平条约



8、pry(vi) ~ into sth 打听,打探某人的私事

                   I don’t want them prying into my affairs 我不愿他们打探我的私事


★ peep(vi) ~ at sth 匆匆的,诡秘且小心的偷看,窥视

                   peeping at a secret document 偷看秘密文件



9、scour(vt) ~ sth out 将某物刷净或擦亮

                   scour the pots and pans 将壶和锅刷干净

~ sth away/off 擦掉,刷去污垢


★ ransack(vt) ~ sth for sth 彻底搜寻某处;抢劫某物,掠夺

I have ransacked the house for those papers我满房子到处找那些文件




He took his prize and swaggered to his seat 他领奖后得意洋洋的回到自己的座位上


★ strut(vi)(贬)趾高气扬的走,高视阔步

She strutted past us,ignoring our greeting 她神气活现的从我们面前走过,我们打招呼她都不理。




                The vagaries of fashion 时髦样式


★ fancy(n)想象力(尤指对非现实的事物)

                 I have a fancy that he will be late。我感觉到他要迟到。





刘毅词汇10000学习笔记 lesson 3(5)


1、asset(n) ~ to sb/sth 有价值或有用的特性或技能;有价值的或有用的人

Good health is a great asset。


             His assets included shares in the company and a house in Landon。他的财产包括公司的股票和位于伦敦的房子。


★ property(n) 所有物,财产,资产

                   The jewels were her personal property。那些首饰是她的私人财产。


                   Property brings duties and responsibilities。有了财产也就有了权利和义务。


                   Certain plants have medicinal properties。有些植物具有药效效用。



2、chasm(n)deep opening in the grounds;abyss;gorge (地上的)深坑;深渊;峡谷;

                   There was a deep political chasm between the two countries which nearly let to a war。两国间的政治冲突几乎导致战争。



★ gap(n)opening or break in sth or between tow things 缺口,裂口,豁口、

The road goes through a gap in the hills。公路从山间峡谷穿过。


              a gap of five miles between towns 镇与镇之间相隔五公里


              a wide gap between the two people 两人意见的巨大分歧



3、despoil(vt) ~ sth of sth 从(某处)抢劫有价值之物,掠夺某物

Museums have despoiled India of many priceless treasures。博物馆里有许多从印度掠夺来的无价之宝。


★ depredation(n) (由攻击、事故等造成的)损坏、破坏

The town survived the depredations of marauding gangs。这个城镇经受住了打家劫舍的匪徒造成的破坏。




a facetious young man 耍贫嘴的小伙子


★ humorous(adj)幽默的,滑稽的,诙谐的




The van hurtled round the corner。货车飞快的转过街角。


★ dash(vi) ~ for sth 突进,猛冲

He dashed off with the money。他带着钱逃跑了。




         ◎ larcenous(adj)


★ robbery(n)抢劫、盗窃、偷窃、失窃




The smell of baked apples pervaded the house。房子里弥漫着烤苹果的香味。

          ◎ pervasion(n)


★ spread(vt)(pt,pp spread) ~ sth out on/over sth 展开、铺开、摊开

The bird spread out its wings 那只鸟张开了翅膀




recant one’s former beliefs 宣布放弃以前的信仰


★ retract(v)撤回或撤销(声明、指控的);拒绝遵守或执行协议

The accused refused to retract his statement 那被告拒不撤销其供述。




That old tramp shambled up to me。那个老流浪汉拖着脚向我走来。

        ◎ shambles(n)混乱的场面、凌乱、杂乱


★ confusion(n)迷惑,慌乱;混乱,杂乱

Her unexpected arrival threw us into total confusion。她来得很突然,使我们完全不知所措。




There is a taboo on smoking in this office。这个办公室里一向都不吸烟的。


★ prohibition(n)禁止、阻止




He had trappings of high office but no real power。他空有高官的派头却无实权。


★ decorations(n)装饰品,装饰物


刘毅词汇10000学习笔记 lesson 4(1)


1、abdicate(vt)formally relinquish (power,a high official position)正式放弃(权力、高位)

He has abdicated all responsibility in the affair 他已经放弃了这件事中的一切职责。

        ◎ abdication(n)


★ relinquish(vt)give up or cease to practice,abandon;不再采取行动,不再有某种感觉,放弃

He had relinquished all hope that she was alive。他已经放弃了她还活着的希望。


★ abandon(vt)离开(某人某物某地)而不返回,遗弃、抛弃;离弃

give orders to abandon ship 下令弃船

           (vt)give up completely(esp sth began)完全放弃(尤指已经开始的事物,如方案、设计、计划等)

The match was abandoned because of bad weather。比赛因恶劣天气而取消。

(vt)  yield completely to(an emotion of impulse)完全屈从于(某种情感或冲动)  ~ oneself to sth

 He abandoned himself to despair。他陷入绝望中

◎ abandonment(n)


★ surrender(vi,vt)  stop resisting an enemy,yield;give up 停止抵抗,投降,屈服,放弃;~ (oneself)(to sb)

The hijackers finally surrendered to the police。劫机者终于向警方投降了。

(vt) give up possession of sth/sb when forced by others or by necessity;hand sth/sb over 被迫放弃对某物(某人)的控制权,交出某事物(某人)

        ◎ surrender(n)



2、accrue(vi)come as a natural increase or advantage,esp financial;accumulate 自然增长或利益增加(尤指财务);积累  ~ to sb from sth

Interest will accrue if you keep your money in a saving account 把钱存在储蓄帐户里就会生息。

        ◎ accrual(n)


★ accumulate(vt) gradually get or gather together an increasing number or quantity of sth get sth in this way 积累,聚积(某物)

accumulate enough evidence to ensure his conviction 搜集足够的证据以给他定罪。

(vi)increase in number or quantity 增加

Dust and dirt soon accumulate if a house is not cleaned regularly。房屋不经常打扫,尘土很快就会越积越多。

◎       accumulative(adj)

◎       accumulation)(n)


★ amass(vt)gather together or collect esp in large quantities (尤指大量的)积累,积聚,收集(某事物)

amass a fortune 积累财富


★ gather(v)come or bring sb/sth in one place 聚集,集合,召集  ~ sb/sth round sth/sb

a musical evening with the whole family gathered round the piano。全家围坐在钢琴旁的音乐晚会

          (vt)bring together objects that have been spread about 收集,收拢(分散的东西)  ~ sth together/up

She gathered up her scattered belongings and left。她把自己的散乱物品收好就走了。



3、badger(vt)pester sb,nag sb persistently 纠缠某人,烦扰某人  ~ sb with/for sth  ~ sb into doing sth

She kept badgering her father into answering strange questions。她一直缠着爸爸回答奇怪的问题。



★ bother(vt) cause trouble or annoyance to sb,pester sb 打扰或烦扰某人,给某人添麻烦  ~ sb about/with sb

           I am sorry to bother you,but could you tell me the way to the station。对不起打扰一下,请问去车站怎么走?

          (vt) worry sb 使某人不安

           The problem has been bothering me for weeks。那问题已经困扰了我几个星期。


★ pester(vt) annoy or disturb sb esp with frequent requests 打扰或纠缠某人(尤指不断提出要求)

Beggars pestered him for money。乞丐缠着向他讨钱。



4、baffle(vt)be too difficult for sb to understand;puzzle 使某人困惑,难倒

Police are baffled as to the identity of the killer。警方不解凶手是谁

◎       bafflement(n)

◎       baffling(adj)难以了解的


★ bewilder(vt)puzzle sb;confuse 迷惑某人,混乱

The child was bewildered by the noise and the crowds。孩子让噪声和人群弄的晕头转向。




★ confuse(vt)(通常用于被动语态)make sb unable to think clearly;puzzle;bewilder 把某人弄糊涂,使迷惑,使为难

           They confused me by asking so many questions。他们提了一大堆问题把我都弄糊涂了。

           (vt)mistake one person or thing with another 混淆   ~ A and/with B

Don’t confuse Austria and Australia。不要把奥地利跟澳大利亚弄混淆了。



5、conjecture(v)(书面语)form and express an opinion not based on firm evidence;guess 推测,猜测  ~ about sth

Don’t conjectured about the outcome。不要对结果妄加猜测。


           Your theory is pure conjecture。拟的理论纯粹是主观臆测。

◎       conjectural(adj)推测的,猜测的


★ surmise(vt)(书面语)suppose without having evidence that makes it certain;guess 猜测某事物,猜想,揣测

With no news from the explorers we can only surmise their present position。我们没有探险者的消息,只能猜测他们现在所处的位置。


           Your first surmise is right。你第一次猜对了。


★ guess(v)give an answer,form an opinion or make a statement about sth without calculating or measuring  猜想,估计、臆测,猜测




◎       derangement(n)


★ upset(vt)打翻,弄翻(尤指无意的)




7、fiend(n)dvilspirit;devil 恶魔,魔鬼;恶魔般的人,穷凶极恶的人

The fiends of hell 地狱的魔鬼


★ devil(n)魔鬼,鬼怪;恶人,坏蛋,调皮鬼,淘气鬼



8、pine(v)unhappy  esp because sb has died or gone away 痛苦(尤指因生离死别)

She certainly hasn’t been pining while you were away。你不在的时候她可并不难受。

        (vi)long for or miss sb/sth 渴望或想念某人    ~ for sb/sth

They were pining to return home 他们渴望返回家园。


★ yearn(vi) desire strongly or with compassion or tenderness;be filled with longing 渴望,怜悯,思念,留念,盼望   ~ for sb/sth

They yearned for their home and family他们怀念故国家园。


★ desire(vt)wish for sth;want 希望得到某事物,想要

We all desire happiness and health。我们都希望幸福和健康。



9、smother(vt)cause sb to die from lack of air;or from not being able to breathe;suffocate (使某人)窒息,闷死

She felt smothered with kindness ta感受到难以消受的热情。


Smother the flames from the burning pan with a wet towel。用湿毛巾把锅里的火扑灭。


★ choke(vi)be unable to breathe because one’s windpipe is blocked by sth 窒息;(掐住或阻塞气管)使某人难以呼吸,呛  ~ on sth

She choked to death on a fish bone。鱼刺把她卡住而窒息。


★ suffocate(vt)cause sb to die as a result of not being able to breathe 使某人窒息而死,将某人闷死

Passengers suffocated in the burning aircraft。乘客在燃烧的飞机中窒息而亡。


★ throttle(vt)seize sb by the throat and stop him breathing;strangle 扼某人的颈部,使窒息,勒死

Throttle the guard before robbing the safe。勒死警卫然后枪保险箱。



10、throb(vi)(of the heart,pulse,etc)beat,esp faster or stronger than usual (指心脏、脉搏)跳动(尤指跳动较快或较强);悸动,搏动   ~ with sth

                Her heart was throbbing with excitement。她兴奋的心直跳


                The ships engine throbbed quietly。船上的发动机发出轻微的震动。


★ pulse(vi)move with strong regular movements;beat or throb 强列而有规律的跳动。搏动,震动

                The news sent the blood pulsing through his veins 这消息使他的血液都沸腾起来了。



★ flutter(vi)(of the wings of birds,butterflies,etc )move lightly and quickly (指鸟、蝴蝶等的翅膀)轻而快的抖动,拍翅

                 The wings of the bird still fluttered after it had been shot down。那鸟被击落后翅膀仍在抖动。

           (vi)move about in quick irregular way 迅速而无规则的乱动;飘动

                 a flag fluttering from the mast-head 在旗杆上飘扬着的旗帜。




刘毅词汇10000学习笔记 lesson 4(2)




★ soup(n)汤,羹

         (习)in the soup 处于困境,出麻烦

                  If your Mum finds out what you have done,you will really be in the soup。要是你妈妈发觉你干的事,你就要倒霉了。



2、crevice(n) narrow opening or crack in a rock or wall(岩石、墙壁等的)裂缝、缺口


★ crack(n)line along which sth has broken,but not into separate parts 裂缝、裂纹

                  a cup with bad cracks in it 有许多裂纹的杯子

         (n)narrow opening 缝隙

                  She looked through a crack in the curtains 他透过帘子的缝隙观望

             (词组)~ on sth 重击(通常为可听到响声的)

             (习)the crack of dawn 黎明、破晓

                  get up at the crack of dawn 黎明就起床

             (习)the crack of doom 世界末日

                   To get a bus here you have to wait till the crack of doom在这要等到世界末日才能有公共汽车。

          (v)develop a crack or cracks 使开裂,破裂,爆裂

You can crack this toughened glass,but you can’t break it  这种韧化玻璃只裂不碎。



3、demean(vt)lower oneself in dignity,deprive oneself of other’s respect 降低自己的身份,失去别人的尊重,贬低自己        ~ oneself

                 Don’t demean yourself by telling such obvious lies 你不要用这种明显的谎言自贬人格。

           ◎ demeaning(adj)降低身份的,卑微的,堕落的

                 He found it very demeaning to have to work for his former employee。他觉得要为他以前的雇员工作很失身份。


★ degrade(vt)cause sb to be less moral and less deserving of respect 贬低某人,降低某人的身份,使某人丢脸

                  I felt degrade by having to ask for money。我出于无奈向别人要钱而自觉有失尊严。



4、foster(vt)help the growth or development of sth;encourage or promote 培养,培育某物;鼓励,促进

                  foster the growth of local industries 扶植地方工业


                  People who cannot have a baby of their own sometimes foster a child。不能生育的人有时领养别人的孩子。


★ nurse(v)take care of the sick or injured;look after 看护、护理(病人或受伤者),照顾某人

                 My mother has been nursing for 40 years。我母亲40年来一直做护理工作。

          (vt) give special care to sth;help to develop 特别照料,培养

                 nurse young plants 培育幼苗



5、incentive(n) thing that encourages sb to do sth;stimulus 激励某人做某事的事物,刺激;奖励  ~ to do sth

                 They don’t try very hard, but then there’s no incentive 他们不太卖力气,不过却也没给他们奖励。


★ stimulus(n)(pl stimuli)thing that produces a reaction in living things 使生物体产生反应之物,刺激物

                  The nutrient in the soil act as a stimulus to growth 土壤中的养分能促进植物生长。


      Her words of praise were a stimulus to work harder 她赞扬的话鼓舞人工作更加努力。



6、maze(n)(通常做单数)network of paths or hedges designed as a puzzle in which one must find one’s way迷宫 迷魂阵

                   We got lost in Hampton Court maze。我们在汉普顿科特迷宫迷了路。

        (n)confused collection or complicated mass of facts,etc (事情等的)错综,复杂

                   find one’s way through the maze of rules and regulations 在纷繁的规则和条例中寻找出路。


★ labyrinth(n) complicated network of winding passages,paths,etc through which it is difficult to find one’s way  迷宫

                    The old building was a labyrinth of dark corridors。那座古老建筑是一座长廊纵横、光线昏暗的迷宫。



7、pore(v) pore over sth  钻研(某事物),审查、审视

She was poring over an old map of the area。她正在仔细查阅该地区的地图。


              He was sweating at every pore。他汗流浃背。



9、rubbish(n,不可数名词)waste or worthless material 垃圾,废物


His book is a load of rubbish 他的书简直是废话连篇。


★ trash(n,不可数名词)material,writing etc of poor quality 拙劣的作品,材料;垃圾,废物

He thinks most modern arts is trash 他认为现代艺术大都是糟粕。



10、speculate(vi)form opinions without having definite or complete knowledge or evidence;guess 思考,思索,推断,推测  ~ about/on./upon sth

I wouldn’t like to speculate on the reasons for her resignation 我不愿意猜测她辞职的原因。


★ meditate(vi) think deeply,esp about spiritual matters 深思,沉思,冥想(尤指精神方面的问题)

                I meditate in order to relax。我沉思冥想借以松弛精神。



11、transfix(vt)(尤用于被动语态)stick sth pointed completely through sth/sb 用某物刺穿某人(某物) ~ sth/sb with/on sth

                  a fish transfixed with a harpoon 用鱼叉叉穿的鱼

          (vt)(尤用于被动语态) make sb unable to move,think or speak because of fear,astonishment,etc 使某人(因恐惧,惊愕)不能动弹、思想或说话   ~ sb with sth

                  He stood staring at the ghost,transfixed with terror。他站在那里看着那个鬼,吓得不能动弹。


★ petrify(vt)(尤用于被动语态) make sb unable to think,move,act,etc because of fear,surprise,etc 使某人惊呆或吓呆   ~ sb with sth

                 The idea of making a speech in the public petrified him 一想到要在大庭广众面前讲演,他就紧张的不知所措。




刘毅词汇10000学习笔记 lesson 4(3)


1、anomaly(n)anomalous thing;irregularity  异常的事物,不合规则

                 The many anomalies in the tax system 税务制度中的多种异常现象

        ◎ anomalous(adj)different from what is normal;irregular 异常的,不规则的

                 He is in an anomalous position as the only part-time worker in the firm。他与众不同,是公司唯一的兼职人员。


★ abnormal(adj)different,esp in an undesirable way,from what is normal,ordinary or expected 反常的,不正常的,变态的

                  abnormal weather conditions 反常的天气

        ◎ abnormality(n)异常,反常,变态


★ irregular(adj) not regular in shape,arrangement,etc,uneven (形状)不规则的,(安排)无规律的,不平坦的  ~ in sth

                   a coast with an irregular outline 曲折的海岸线

(adj)not happening,coming,going,etc regularly;varying or unequal (发生,来去等)无规律的,不平坦的

       occur at irregular intervals 不定期发生

(adj)contrary to the rules or what is normal or established 不规则的,不合常规的,非正规的。

◎ irregularity(n)不整齐,不平坦,不规则,不合常规



2、converge(vi) (of lines,moving objects,etc)(come towards each other and) meet at a point  (指线条、运动的物体等)会于一点,向一点会合,聚集  ~ on sb/sth;~ at sth

                   armies converging on the capital city 向首都集结的各路军队

           (vi)become similar or identical (趋于)相似或相同

                   Our previously opposed views are beginning to converge 我们原来相互对立的观点开始趋于一致。

◎ convergent(adj)相交的,趋于一致的

◎ convergence(n)


★ focus(n)(pl focuses or foci)(光、声等的)中心点,源;焦点,焦距;聚集,调焦;活动的中心,使人感兴趣的所在

                  In tonight’s programme our focus is on Germany。今天晚上我们的节目重点介绍德国。

        (vi) become able to see clearly 能够看清楚

                  His eyes focused slowly in the dark room 他在那间黑屋子里眼睛慢慢看清了东西。

        (vt)cause sth to be concentrated at a point 使某物集中(于一点);将注意力集中于某事物   ~ sth on sth

                 Please focus your minds on the following problem 请集中考虑以下问题



3、duplicate(adj)(做定语) exactly like something else;identical (与另一物)完全一样的。完全相同的

                a duplicate set of keys (与另一套)完全相同的一套钥匙。

         (n)one of two or more things that are exactly alike;copy 相似物,复制品

                Is this a duplicate or original?这是复制件还是原件?


                This research merely duplicates work already done elsewhere 这项研究仅仅是重复别人已经做过的工作。

◎ duplication(n)复制,重复


★ double(n)两倍,加倍

                He’s paid double for the same job 他做同样的工作,报酬比别人多一倍。

         (n)person or thing that looks very like another 酷似的人或事物

                She’s the double of her mother at the same age。她和她母亲年轻时十分相似。




                 Einstein’s theory marked a new epoch in mathematics 爱因斯坦理论开创了数学的新纪元。


★ age(n)(具有某种特征或特殊事件的)历史时期,时代

                 the modern age 现代



5、gaunt(adj)(of a person)made exceptionally thin by hunger or illness;haggard;(指人)(因饥饿或疾病)憔悴的,骨瘦如柴的

                 the gaunt face of a starving man 饿汉憔悴的面容

(adj)(of a place)bare desolate (指地方)不毛的,荒凉的


★ haggard(adj)looking tired and unhappy,esp from worry,lack of sleep 憔悴的,形容枯槁的(尤因忧愁或缺觉等所致)



6、incessant(adj) not stopping,continual 不停的,连续的,不断的


★     continuous(adj)便是动作或物体继续不停的或不间断的进行下去

★     continual(adj)一般指多次重复的动作



7、mute(adj)silent,making no sound 沉默的,无声的;

                  remain mute 保持沉默

(adj)(旧)(of people)unable to speak,dumb (指人)不能说话的,哑的


★ silent(adj)寂静的,无声的


                On certain important details the report remains strangely silent 这份报告在某些重要的细节问题上只字未提,莫名其妙





★ defender(n)后卫



9、scan(vt)look at every part of sth carefully;examine with great attention 细看(某物的)各部;仔细检查(某物)

He scanned the horizon,looking for land 他细看天水相连的地方,寻找陆地。


        She scanned the newspaper over breakfast。她吃着早饭把报纸大略看了一遍


★ overlook(vt)俯瞰,俯视(某处)

My room overlooks the sea 从我的房间可以眺望大海。


               He was overlooked when they set about choosing a new manager。选任新经理时没有考虑他。



10、stab(vt) pierce sth or wound sb with a pointed tool or weapon;push a knife,etc into sb/sth 戳(某物),刺伤(某人),(用刀等)捅(某人某物)

She stabbed him in the leg with a kitchen knife 她拿菜刀捅伤了他的腿。

        (习)stab sb in the back 背地里中伤某人,背叛某人


★ pierce(vt)(of sharp-pointed instruments)go into or through sth (指尖物)刺入、刺透(某物)

The arrow pierced his shoulder 那枝箭刺入他的肩膀。


               She had her ears pierced so that she could wear ear-rings 她已经扎好了耳朵眼好戴耳环。




刘毅词汇10000学习笔记 lesson 4(4)


1、botch(vt) spoil sth by poor or clumsy work;repair sth badly (笨手笨脚的)弄坏某事物,把某事物修理的很糟   ~ sth up

The mechanic tried to repair my car, but he really botched it up。那个技工想把我的汽车修好,可是他一修更糟了。

         ◎ botcher(n)笨手笨脚的人


★ ruin(vt)cause the destruction of sb/sth 毁坏,毁灭某人/某事物

He ruined his prospects by carelessness。他因疏忽大意而断送了前途

(n、U)severe damage or destruction 毁坏、毁灭,灭亡

     The news meant the ruin of all our hopes。这消息使我们的一切希望都破灭了。



     The capital was fallen into ruin。城堡已经破败不堪。

(习语)in ruins  严重受损、破败不堪

     A earthquake left the whole town in ruins 那次地震过后,全城到处都是残垣断壁。


★ spoil(vt,pt pp  spoilt)make sth useless,valueless or unsatisfactory;ruin 毁掉、损坏、破坏、糟蹋某事物

The new road has completely spoiled the character of the village。新修的路彻底毁掉了那个村庄的特色。

          (vt)harm the character of (esp a child)by lack of descipline or too mach generosity,attention,praise,etc 娇惯、宠坏、溺爱(尤指儿童)

That little girl is terribly spoilt。那个小女孩真惯的不象话


Some kind of food soon spoil 有些食物容易变质

          (习语)be spoilt for choice 因供选择的事物太多而无从下手

◎ spoilage(n)(食物等的)变坏、变质、腐烂



2、chafe(vi)become irritated or impatient because of sth (因某事物)恼怒或不耐烦 ~ at/under sth

The passengers sat chafing at the long delay 乘客们因为长时间的耽误而坐的很不耐烦。

        (v)(cause sth to)become sore by rubbing (使某物)因摩擦而疼痛

His shirt collar chafed his neck 他的衬衫领口把脖子磨腾了。



★ abrade(vt)wear away(skin,fabric,rock,etc)by rubbing;scrape off 磨损(表皮、织物、岩石等);刮除

◎ abrasion(n)刮除、磨损、擦掉;擦伤处

◎ abrasive(adj)有研磨作用的,粗糙的;伤人感情的,粗鲁的


★ scrape(vt) make (a surface,etc)clean,level or smooth by drawing a sharp tool or sth rough across it 擦净、削平、磨光(某物)  ~ sth down/out/off

             She is scraping the path clear of snow 她正在把路上的积雪铲掉。

         (vt)remove(mud,grease,paint,etc)in this way 除掉(泥、油渍、油漆等) ~ sth from/off sth  ~ sth away/off

              scrape the dust off 把锈刮去

         (vt)injure or damage sth by rubbing with sth rough,sharp 擦伤或刮坏某物  ~ sth against/on/along sth

             I scraped the side of my car against a wall。我的汽车车身蹭墙被划坏了。

         (vt)remove(skin,paint,etc)accidentally in this way  擦伤、刮坏(皮肤,油漆等)  ~ sth from/off sth  ~ sth away/off

             I must have scraped some of the paint off when I was parking the car 我准是停放汽车的时候刮掉了一些油漆。



3、dissipate(v)(cause sth to)scatter or vanish (使某事物)消散、消失

            Her son’s letter dissipated all her fears and anxiety 她儿子的来信消除了她一切恐惧和焦虑。

          (vt)waste(time,money,etc)foolishly  浪费(时间、金钱等)

        ◎ dissipation(n,U)驱散、消散;浪费


★ scatter(v)(cause people or animals to)move,usu quickly,in different directions (使人或动物)散开

The police scattered the crowd。警察驱散了人群。

           (vt)throw sth in different directions;put here and there 撒(某物);散布

We scattered plates of food around the room before the party。我们在聚会前把一盘盘食物摆放在屋中各处。

(vt) ~ sth with sth 将某物撒在某物表面上

    scatter the lawn with grass seed 把草籽撒在草坪上



4、efface(vt)rub or wipe sth out;cause to fade 擦去,抹掉(某事物);使淡薄,使逐渐消失

Time alone will efface those unpleasant memories 只有时间才能使人淡忘那些不快的记忆。


★ erase(vt)rub or scrape sth out;remove all traces of sth 擦掉或刮掉某物,消除某事物的痕迹 ~ sth from sth



5、glint(vi)give out small,bright flashes of light 闪闪发光;指某人的眼睛闪现某种神色



★ flash(vi)give or send out a brief bright light 发出闪光



6、onerous(adj)needing effort;burdensome 艰巨的,繁重的

This is the most onerous task I have ever undertaken 这是我承担过的最艰巨的任务。


★ arduous(adj)needing much effort or energy;laborious 艰巨的,费力的

                The work is arduous and the hours are long 工作吃力,时间又长。


★ laborious(adj)(of work,etc)needing much effort (指工作等)艰苦的,费力的;吃力的,不流畅的,不自然的



7、iterate(vt)say sth again and again;make(an accusation,a demand,etc)repeatedly 反复说某事,一再提出(指责,要求等)  ~ sth to sb


★ repeat(vt)say or write sth again once or more than once;reiterate 重复说或写,反复重申


Such bargain offers can’t be repeated 这么便宜的价钱不会再有了。



8、propensity(n)inclination or tendency 倾向、习性  ~ for/to/towards sth  ~ for doing/to do sth


★ tendency(n)way a person or thing tends to be or behave (人物或呈现的)倾向、趋势  ~ to/towards sth/to do sth


★ inclination(n)feeling that makes sb want to behave in a particular way;disposition  倾向、意向、意愿  ~ to/towards/for sth   ~ to do sth



9、singe(vt)blacken sth by burning;scorch 烧焦或烫焦(某物)

The iron’s too hot,you’ll singe the dress 熨斗太热了,你会把衣服烫焦的。


★ scorch(vt)burn or discolour a surface by dry heat 将(物体表面)烧焦、烫糊或烫的变色

I scorched my shirt when I was ironing it。我把衬衫烫糊了。




She strutted past us,ignoring our greeting 她神气活现的从我们跟前走过,我们打招呼她都不理。


★ swagger(vi)(贬)趾高气扬的行走或行事

Don’t swagger just because you got the job 别因为得到了这份工作就得意忘形。



11、unravel(v)(cause sth woven,knotted or tangled to)separate into strands (使编织、编结或纠结之物)解开,拆开;(比喻)使某物变清楚或获解决

The mystery unravels slowly。那件神秘的事渐渐明朗了。


★ solve(vt)find an answer to a problem,etc;explain or make clear a mystery etc 解决、解答(难题);解释、揭示(秘密等)

             solve a crime 破案




刘毅词汇10000学习笔记 lesson 4(5)


1、bellow(vi)make a deep loud noise like a bull;roar,esp with pain 发出(像牛的)吼叫声;咆哮(尤指因痛苦)

           The bull bellowed angrily公牛怒吼起来。

         (v)say sth loudly or angrily;shout (大声或愤怒的)说出某事;大叫   ~ sth at sb

           The music was so loud we had to bellow at each other to be hearted音乐的声音实在太大,我们只有彼此大声喊叫才能把话听清。


★ shout(vi)(不用于被动语态)大声说,喊,呼 ~ at/to sb  ~ out

Don’t shout at me 别冲着我喊!



2、cloak(n)sleeveless outer garment hanging loosely from the shoulders,usu worn out of doors 斗篷、披风


           The spy’s activities were concealed by the cloak of diplomacy 间谍的活动是在外交的掩护下暗中进行的。


★ mantle(n)loose sleeveless cloak 披风、斗篷


hills with a mantle of snow 覆盖着一层雪的山



3、devout(adj)sincerely religious;pious 虔信宗教的,虔诚的

         (adj)sincere;deeply felt  诚挚的,真诚的,衷心的,发自内心的

        ◎ devoutness(n)


★ pious(adj)having or showing a deep devotion to religion (对宗教)虔诚的


He dismissed his critics as pious do-gooders who were afraid to face the facts 他把批评他的人斥之为不敢面对事实的假善人。



4、guise(n)(古)style of dress 装束;态度,相貌;(尤指)伪装

           under the guise of friendship 以友谊为伪装


★ appearance(n)coming into view;arrival 出现,到来

(n)that which shows;外表,外貌,外观

    Fine clothes added to his strikingly handsome appearance 华丽的服装使他极其英俊的外貌更加出色。



5、latent(adj)(尤做定语)existing but not yet active,developed or visible 潜在的,不活跃的,未发展的,不明显的

          a latent abilities 潜在的才能


★ concealed(adj)隐藏的



6、pawn(vt)leave an object with a pawnbroker in exchange for money that can be repaid in order to get the object back  典当、抵押(某物)

         He pawned his gold watch to pay the rent  他典当了金表用以交租


★ gage(n)(用以作出估计或判断的)事实、环境、方法、尺度

         Is a person’s behavior under stress a reliable gage of his character?人在受到压力时的行为能做衡量其品性的可靠尺度么?



7、quake(vi)(of the earth)shake (指地)震动、颤动 

         They felt the ground quake as the bomb exploded 炸弹爆炸时,他们觉得地面都震动的。


★ shudder(vi)shiver violently with cold,fear,etc tremble (因寒冷、恐惧等)发抖、战栗   

 ~ with sth

          I shuddered to think of the problem ahead of us。我想到摆在面前的问题就不寒而栗。



8、sequel(n)thing that happens after or as a result of an earlier event 继之而来的事物,有前因的事物   ~ to sth

           His speech had an unfortunate sequel in the in caused a riot他的演说产生了一种不利的后果,尤之引发一种骚乱。


★ result(vt) 重建、改建、重组,改组



9、salvage(n)(对船、船上货物的)海上营救 ;(对火灾、水灾的)财务抢救

Salvage of thye wreck was made difficult by had weather 船遇难后, 因天气阿率救援工作十分困难。


★ rescue(vt )  ~ sb/sth from sth/sb (从危险、囚禁等方面)搭救或救出某人




A virtual state of war between the two countries 两国间实际处于战争状态


★ actual(adj)existing in fact;real 实在的,真实的,实际的,确实的

The actual cost was much higher than we had expected 实际成本比我们预料的高的多。





★ magician(n)魔术师,变戏法的人






刘毅词汇10000学习笔记 lesson 5(1)


1、admonish(vt)  give a mild but firm warning or scolding to sb 温和而严正的警告或责备某人  ~ sb for/against sth

          The teacher admonished the boys or being lazy 老师责备男学生懒惰。

           (v)advise or urge sb seriously 劝告或告诫某人

          She admonished us to seek professional help 她劝我们向专业人士求助。

         ◎ admonishment或admonition(n)警告

         ◎ admonitory(adj)劝告的,轻责的


★ advise(v)recommend 劝告、忠告,建议  ~ sb against sth/doing sth   ~ sb on sth

        The doctor advised me to take a complete rest。医生让我完全休息。

         (v)(尤用于商业)通知或告知某人   ~ sb of sth

        Please advise us of the dispatch of the goods 货物发出请通知我们。




        (习语)bide one’s time  等待有利时机


★ remain(v)(通常不用于进行时态)be left or still present after other parts have been removed or used or dealt with 剩下、剩余、遗留

         After the fire,very little remained of my house 火灾过后,寒舍所剩无几。

         (vi)be left to be seen,done,said 留待以后去看,去说,去做

        Much remains to be done 要做的事情还很多。

         (vi)(尤做庄重语)stay in the same place;stay behind 停留,逗留,留下

        I remain in Landon until May。我在伦敦一直待到五月。

         (v)continue to be;stay in the same condition 仍然是,保持不变

        He remained silent。他保持沉默。



3、condone(vt)treat or regard an offence as if it were not serious or wrong;overlook;forgive  容忍(过失),宽恕,原谅

        Not punishing them amounts to condoning their crime 不惩罚他们就等于纵容他们的罪行


★ excuse(vt)forgive or overlook a fault,etc;pardon sb/sth 宽恕或饶恕(过失等);原谅某人某事物   ~ sb/sth for sth/doing sth

Excuse me for being late。请原谅我来晚了。



4、designate(vt)mark or point out sth clearly 清楚的标出或指出(某事物)

         designate the boundaries of sth 标出某事物的分界线

(v)(尤用于被动语态)choose sb for a special purpose 为某目的选择某人某事物  ~ sb/sth as sth

         The town has been designated as a developing area 该城已被定为开发区。


         She was designated as sportswoman of the year 她被命名为本年度的体坛明星。


★ appoint(vt)choose sb for a job or position of responsibility 挑选某人做某工作或任某职位;任命;委派   ~ sb to sth   ~ sb as sth

         He was appointed to the vacant post 他被委派填补那空缺。



5、fend(v)(短语搭配)fend for oneself 照顾自己;自谋生计;独立生活

         It is time you left home and leant to fend for yourself 你应该离家自立了。

(短语搭配)fend sth./sb off 抵御或抵挡某事物、某人

         The minister had to fend off some awkward questions from reporters 部长需避开记者提出的某些尴尬的问题。


★ defend(vt)protect sb/sth from harm;guard sb/sth 保护某人某物免受伤害;保卫某人某物   ~ sb/sth from/against sb/sth

         When the dog attacked me,I defended myself with a stick 那狗扑向我时,我用棍子自卫。


         The newspaper defended her against the accusation 报纸为她辩护,驳斥对她的指责。



6、hardy(adj)able to endure cold or difficult conditions;tough robust 耐寒的,能吃苦的;强壮的,坚强的;指植物可在冬天过冬的,耐寒的

         A few hardy people swam in the icy water 有几个不怕冷的人在冰冷的水里游泳。


★ robust(adj)vigorous;healthy and strong 有活力的,强健的

         a robust young man 身强力壮的青年小伙子

         (adj)(贬)not delicate or refined 粗野的、粗鲁的




         (短语搭配)limber up (运动等前)做准备活动,活动肢体

        I always do a few easy exercises to limber up before a match 我在比赛前总要做些简单的准备活动


★ supple(adj -r -st)bent or bending easily;not stiff;flexible 易弯曲的,柔软的,灵活的

She has a supple mind 她头脑灵活。



8、philanthropy(n)concern for the welfare of mankind;benevolence 博爱,慈善,仁慈

        ◎ philanthropic(adj)博爱的,慈善的,仁慈的


★ charity(n)loving kindness towards other 慈善,慈悲,慈爱,仁爱

          (n)tolerance in judging other;kindness;leniency 宽容,宽厚,仁慈;

          (n)generosity in giving money,food,help,etc to the needy 施舍,布施,慷慨



9、recollect(v)(不用于被动语态)succeed in calling sth back to the mind;remember 想起,记得,回忆起

         As far as I recollect,you came late 我记得你来晚了。


★ recall(vt)order sb to return from a place (从某处)召回某人  ~ sb from…to…



10、smite(v)(pt  pp  smote  smitten )hit sb/sth hard;strike 重击(某人某事物);打

         He smote the ball into the grandstand 他把球打到看台上去了。


         His conscience smote him 他受到了良心的谴责。


★ affect(vt)have an influence on sb/sth;produce an effect on 影响

        The tax increases have affected us all 加税已经影响了我们大家。


        Cancer had affected his lungs 癌已侵及他的肺脏。



11、testimony(n)written or spoken statement declaring that sth is true;esp one made under oath (书面或口头的)证词(尤指发誓后作出的)

        According to the witness’s testimony,you were present when the crime was committed 根据证人证词所示,案发时你在犯罪现场。


        The pyramids are testimony to the Ancient Egyptians engineering skills 金字塔是古埃及人工程技术精湛的丰碑。


★ proof(n)evidence that shows or helps to show,that sth is true or is a fact 证据,证物,证言

          What proofs have you that the statement is correct?你有什么证据证明这种说法是正确的么?




刘毅词汇10000学习笔记 lesson 5(2)



         We sell a wide range of ales and stouts 我们出售种类繁多的浓啤酒和黑啤酒。


★ lager(n)贮藏啤酒

★ stout(n)(烈性的)黑啤酒



2、blend(vt)mix(different types of sth)in order to get a certain quality 混合,搀和

        blended coffee 混合的咖啡

        (vi)form a mixture;mix 成为混合物,混合 ~ with sth  ~ together

        oil and water do not blend 油和水不能混合。

        (vi)mix one thing with another;mix things together 将此物与彼物混合;把东西掺杂在一起     ~ A with B  ~ A and B together

        blend the eggs with the milk 把蛋掺到奶里

        (vi)combine with sth in a harmonious way;look or sound good together 调和,协调,融合 ~ with sth  ~ together

Those cottages blend perfectly with the landscape。那些农舍与周围的风景完全融为一体了。

 (vi)(尤指颜色)逐渐融合在一起  ~ into sth

The sea and the sky seemed to blend into each other 海和天似乎连成一片。


★ combine(v)cause things to join or mix together to form a whole (使物件)结合或混合成一个整体;联合;组合;合并;化合     ~ A with B  ~ A and B

        Circumstances have combined to ruin our plans for a holiday 各种情况凑在一起破坏了我们的假日计划。

          (vt)同时做(不止一件事);兼有(不止一种)特性    ~ A and B  ~ A with B

combine business with pleasure 寓工作于娱乐之中




◎ carnivore(n)肉食动物


★ vegetarian(n)吃素的人,食草动物

◎ vegetarianism(n)素食,素食主义




         polar bears,denizens of the frozen north 北极熊,北极冰天雪地的老住户。


★ inhabitant(n)(某地的)居民,住户;栖息的动物

         The oldest inhabitants of the island 岛上最早的栖息者



5、frenzy(n)state of extreme excitement;extreme and wild activity or behavior 极度激动的状态;极度狂乱的活动或行为

The speaker worked the crowd up into a state of frenzy。讲演者煽动起群众疯狂的情绪。


★ ferment(n)发酵剂,酵母


         The country was in a state of ferment。这个国家处于动荡不安中。



6、incapacitate(vt)make sb unable to do sth;weaken or disable sb 使某人不能做某事;使某人孱弱或伤残  ~ sb fro sth   ~ sb from doing sth

Poor health incapacitated him for work 他身体不好,一辈子不能工作。


★ disable(vt)make sb unable to do sth;esp by making a limb or limbs useless  使某人丧失能力;使某人残废(尤指肢体)

a soldier disabled by leg wounds 腿部受伤致残的士兵





        The game was a 10-0 massacre 比赛结果是10-0惨败。


★ slaughter(n)the killing of animals,esp for food 屠宰(尤指供食用)



8、ponder(v)think about sth carefully and for a long time,esp in trying to reach a decision;consider  长时间的仔细考虑某事物(尤指以便作出决定);深思  ~ on/over sth

I pondered over the incident,asking myself again and again how it could have happened 我反复思考那件事,一再自问究竟是怎么回事。


★ meditate(vi)think deeply,esp about spiritual matters 深思,沉思,冥想(尤指精神方面的问题) ~ on/upon sth

        I meditate in order to relax 我沉思冥想以松弛精神。



9、riddle(n)puzzling question,statement or description,esp one intended to test the cleverness of those wishing to solve 谜,(尤指)谜语


★ enigma(n)question,person,thing,circumbstance,etc that is difficult to understand;mystery 难于理解的问题,人,物,情况等;奥秘

◎ enigmatic(adj)难以理解的;神秘的



10、spank(vt)slap esp a child with a flat hand,esp on the buttocks,as a punishment 掴(尤指小孩)(尤指打屁股惩罚)


★ beat(vt)hit sb/sth repeatedly,esp with a stick (接连的)打(某人某物)(尤指棒打)

        Who’s beating the drum?谁在敲鼓?



11、totter(vi)walk or move unsteadily;stagger 走得或动的不稳;踉跄;蹒跚

The child tottered across the room。那孩子跌跌撞撞走到房间那一边。


★ stagger(vi)walk or move unsteadily as if about to fall from carrying sth heavy,being weak or drunk,etc  蹒跚,踉跄,摇晃着移动

       She staggered and fell 她踉跄了几步,跌倒在地。




刘毅词汇10000学习笔记 lesson 5(3)


1、appease(vt)make sb/sth quiet or calm,usu by making concessions or by satisfying demands 使某人某事物安静或平息(通常为作出让步或满足要求)

appease sb’s anger 平息某人的怒气

◎ appeasement(n)平息的行动或政策(尤指为避免战争对潜在敌人作出的让步);安抚,姑息


★ placate(vt)make sb less angry;soothe or pacify 安慰,抚慰某人,使某人平静,息怒

◎ placatory(adj)安慰的,抚慰的,和解的



2、catastrophe(n)sudden great desaster or misfortune 突如其来的大灾难或大灾祸

          The earthquake was a terrible catastrophe 这次地震是可怕的灾难。

         ◎ catastrophic(adj)灾难性的


★ calamity(n)serious misfortune or disaster 灾祸,灾难

There are worse calamities than failing your driving test 比起你驾驶考试不合格来,更大的灾难还多着呢。



3、daunt(vt)(通常用于被动语态)discourage sb;frighten 使某人气馁,威吓;

        I was rather daunted by the thought of addressing such an audience 我一想到要对这样的听众讲话,就有些胆小。

(习语)nothing daunted 毫无惧色,毫不气馁


★ dismay(n)feeling of shock and discouragement 惊愕,气馁,灰心

        We watched in blank dismay as she packed her bags 我们瞧着她打行李,感到无可奈何。



4、gape(vi)(贬)stare with an open mouth,usu in surprise 目瞪口呆的凝视,张嘴注视   ~ at sb/sth

What are you gaping at?你目瞪口呆的看什么呢?


★ gawk(vi)(口)stare impolitely or stupidly;无礼的或呆呆的瞪眼看   ~ at sb/sth

I hate being gawking at。我讨厌任佳直瞪着我。



5、duration(n)time during which sth lasts or continues 持续时间,期间

for the duration of this government 本届政府执政期间


★ period(n)length or portion of time 一段时间,时期

        He has had several long periods of time abroad。他在国外长期工作过几次。

◎ periodic(adj)定期的,周期的



6、implore(vt)ask or beg sb earnestly;beseech 恳求或乞求某人;哀求;

         They implored her to stay 他们恳求她留下。

◎ imploring(adj)哀求的,恳求的


★ entreat(vt)ask sb for sth earnestly and feelingly;beg (为某事)恳求某人 ~ sth of sb

        May I entreat a favor of you?您能帮帮忙么?

◎ entreaty(n)恳求,请求,要求



7、muffle(vt)wrap or cover sb/sth for warmth or protection 包裹或覆盖某人某物(为保暖或保护)  ~ sb/sth up in sth

He walked out into the snow,heavily muffled up in a thick scarf and warm overcoat。他雪天出门,裹着厚厚的围巾,穿着暖和的大衣。


★ wrap(vt)cover or enclose sth in soft or flexible material (用软的或可弯曲的材料)包或裹某物  ~ sth up in sth

I have wrapped up the parcels and they’re ready to be posted。我把包裹都包好了,可以寄出去了。



8、prank(n)playful or mischievous trick 玩笑,恶作剧


★ trick(n)thing done in order to deceive or outwit sb 诡计,计谋,花招,骗术

        We need a trick to get past the guards 我们需要用计骗过岗哨。



9、saunter(vi)walk in a leisurely way;stroll 漫步,闲逛 

saunter down the avenue 沿着林荫道漫步


★ stroll(vi)walk in a slow leisurely way 散步;漫步;闲逛;溜达

He strolls in and out as he pleases 他随意的出来进去闲逛。



10、trickle(v)cause sth to flow in a thin stream 使某物成小股流动

        Blood trickled from the wound 血液从伤口流出来。


★ drip(vi)fall in drops 滴下

Rain was dripping down from the trees 雨水从树上滴下。




刘毅词汇10000学习笔记 lesson 5(4)


1、astound(vt)(通常用于被动语态)overcome sb with surprise or shock;amaze  使震惊,使大吃一惊;使惊奇

We were astounded to read your letter 我们看了你的信大吃一惊。

◎ astounding(adj)使人震惊的


★ amaze(vt)(尤用于被动语态)fill sb with great surprise or wonder 使某人惊异或惊奇

         We were amazed at the change in his appearance 他的样子变得使我们大为惊奇。



2、clan(n)group of families,esp in Scotland,descended from a common ancestor 宗族,家族;(尤指苏格兰氏的)氏族;大家族,大家庭


★ tribe(n)racial group(esp in a primitive or nomadic culture)united by language,religion,customs etc and living as a community under one or more chiefs 部落



3、distort(vt)pull or twist sth out of its usual shape 使某物变形,扭曲,弄歪某物

a face distorted by pain 因疼痛而扭曲的脸

 (vt)make sth look or sound unnatural 使某物失真

The announcement was so distorted that I couldn’t understand what was said 通告播出的声音严重失真,我听不懂说的是什么。


★ falsify(vt)alter falsely 窜改(如文件);伪造;

falsify records 伪造记录

    (vt)present sth falsely 歪曲(某事物)

falsify an issue 歪曲问题



4、entrust(vt)trust sb to take charge of sth/sb 委托某人负责某事物(照看某人) ~ A to B  ~ B with A

He entrusted his children to me 他托我照看一天孩子。


★ commit(vt)do sth illegal,wrong or foolish 做不合法的、错的或愚蠢的事;犯

         commit murder 犯凶杀



5、glutton(n)person who eats too much 贪吃的人,吃的过多的人

        You’ve eaten the whole pie,you glutton 你把整块馅饼都吃了,你这贪吃鬼!


★ gormandizer(n)(贬)大吃大喝的人



6、invalid(adj)not properly based or able to be upheld by reasoning 无适当根据的,无道理的,站不住脚的;

         an invalid argument 站不住脚的论据

        (adj)not usable;not officially acceptable (because of an incorrect detail or details);not legally recognized 无用的,不能正式接受的,法律上不承认的,无效的

A passport that is out of date is invalid  护照过期的是无效的


He has been an invalid all his life 他终身残废。


★ worthless(adj)having no value or usefulness 无价值的,没用的

This contract is now worthless。这份合同现在毫无价值了。



7、overtone(n)(通常做复数)something suggested or implied in addition to what is actually stated;hint 暗示,含义,弦外之音

overtones of despair in a letter 信中字里行间的绝望之意


★ implication(n)含义,暗示,暗指 ~ for sb/sth

The new report has far-reaching implications for the future of broadcasting 这一新报告对广播业的前途有些意味深长的暗示



8、probe(n)tool for examining a place which cannot be reached otherwise,esp a thin implement with a blunt end used by a doctor for examining a wound  探察工具,探测器;(尤指医生用的)探子,探针

(vt)explore or examine sth with or as if with a probe (用或似用探针等)探查,探测

He probed the swelling anxiously with his finger 他很担心的用手指触摸肿处。


★ investigate(v)find out and examine all the facts about sth in order to obtain the truth 调查,侦察

Scientists are investigating to find out the cause of the crash 科学家们正在调查失事的原因。

       (vt)find out detailed facts about sb or his character by questioning observation,etc 审问,审查

Applicants for government posts are always thoroughly investigated before being appointed 申请担任政府公职的人总要经过彻底审查才能受到委任。



9、shrine(n)any place that is regarded as hole because of its associations with a special person or event 神圣的地方或处所;圣地,圣坛;神龛

Wimbledon is a shrine for all lovers of tennis 温布尔登是所有网球爱好者的圣地。


★ sanctuary(n)sacred place,eg a church,temple or mosque 圣所,圣地(如教堂、庙宇或回教寺院)


The fleeing rebels found a sanctuary in the nearby church 叛乱后逃跑的人躲进附近教堂寻求庇护。



10、statute(n)law passed by Parliament or a similar law-making body and written down formally 成文法,法规,法令

(n)any of the rules of an institution  条例;规则,章程

under the University’s statutes 根据该大学的章程


★ bill(n)帐单;广告,招贴,海报,告示;(电影院、剧场等的)节目单;(提交议会讨论的)法案

        (v)send sb a bill for sth 送交某人帐单(要求为某事物付帐) ~ sb for sth

I can’t pay for the books now。Will you bill me for them later?这些书我现在不能付款,事后给我寄帐单来好么?



11、writhe(vi)(of sb or sb’s body)twist or roll about,esp because of great pain (指某人或身体)扭动或翻滚)(尤指因剧痛)

        The patient was writhing about on the bed in agony  病人疼的在床上直打滚。


★ wriggle(v)cause sth to make quick,short twisting and turning movements 使某物扭动、蠕动、蜿蜒行进

      I can’t brush your hair if you keep wriggling all the time 你要是一直扭来扭去,我就没法给你梳头了。




刘毅词汇10000学习笔记 lesson 5(5)


1、behold(vt)(古或修辞,常用于祈使语气) 看(尤指不寻常之物)

        The babe was a wonder to behold。这个婴儿看上去令人称奇。


★ observe(vt)(只用于被动语态) see and notice sb/sth;watch carefully 看到,注意到某人某事物;观察,监视

He observed keenly,but says little 他观察敏锐,但是很少说话



2、condescend(vi)(贬)do sth that one regards as undignified or below one’s level of importance 屈尊,俯就

        She actually condescended to say hello to me in the street today。她今天在街上竟能屈尊跟我打招呼。

(vi)(贬)behave kindly or graciously,but in a way that shows one feels that one is better than other people (带有优越感的)故意表示和蔼可亲  ~ to sb

        I do wish he wouldn’t condescend to the junior staff in his department。我但愿他不要假惺惺的纡尊降贵接近部门的低级员工。


★ deign(vt)(有时做贬语或反语)be kind or gracious enough to do sth;condescend 屈尊,俯就(做某事)

         He walked past me without even deigning to look at me。他从我身旁走过,竟没有屈尊看我一眼。



3、dike(n)ditch for allowing water to flow away from land  排水沟

(n)long wall of earth,etc to keep back water and prevent flooding(拦水防洪的)上堤,堤坝


★ bank(n)河边的斜坡;河边的土地;河岸;河畔




4、flip(vt)toss sth with a sharp movement of the thumb and forefinger so that is turns over in the air (用拇指和食指)捻(某物)(使之在空中翻转)

flip a coin 捻硬币(抛向空中)

(vt)turn sth over quickly 快速的翻转某物  ~ sth over

flip the pages over 很快的翻着书页。


★ toss(vt)throw sth lightly or carelessly or easily 扔,抛,掷  ~ sth to sb

He tossed the book down on the table 他把书扔在桌子上。



5、grisly(adj)causing horror or terror ghastly 恐怖的,可怕的

the grisly remains of the half-eaten corpses 尸体被吃掉一半的恐怖残骸


★ horrible(adj)causing horror 可怕的,令人恐惧的




6、knave(n)dishonest man;man without honour 不诚实的人,不名誉的人


★ rogue(n)dishonest or unprincipled man 不诚实的或不道德的男子;无耻之徒;


        He’s a charming rogue 他是个淘气鬼



7、parley(n)(尤指正式的)meeting between enemies or opponents to discuss terms for peace,etc 敌对双方的和谈

        (v)have a parley 与某人谈判  ~ with sb


★ negotiation(n 不可数名词或可数名词,做可数名词时常做复数)discussion aimed at reaching an agreement;negotiating 商议;谈判;让与;流通

The price is a matter for negotiation 价格是可以谈判的。



8、shred(n)(尤做复数)strip or piece torn,cut or scraped from sth (撕下、切下或刮下的)细条,碎片

The jacket was torn to shreds by the barbed wire 那件夹克让铁丝网给挂碎了。


★ fragment(n)small part or piece broken off(sth) 某物的碎片;某物的片断或不完整部分

        I heard only a fragment of their conversation 我只听到他们谈话的只言片语。

◎ fragmentary(adj)支离破碎的



9、surmise(vt)suppose sth without having evidence that makes it certain;guess 猜测某事物,猜想,揣测

        With no news from the explorers we can only surmise their present position 我们没有探险者的消息,只能猜测他们现在所处的位置。


★ guess(v) give an answer,form an opinion or make a statement about sth without calculating or measuring and without definite knowledge 猜想,估计,臆测,推测  ~ at sth



10、vicissitude(n)(通常做复数)change in one’s circumstances,esp for the worse (个人境况的)改变,(尤指)变坏


★ variety(n)quality of not being the same,or not being the same at all times变化,多样化

          (n)number or range of different things;assortment 若干不同事物的混合  ~ of sth


11、warden(n)person responsible for supervising sth 负责监督、监护或监管的人

         the warden of a youth hostel 青年招待所的管理员


★ watchman(n)person employed to guard a building (受雇看守建筑物,如银行、办公楼或工厂的)警卫员,看守人(尤指夜间的)












2012大学英语六级热点作文预测之电视相亲节目话题:1. 目前电视相亲节目很流行 2.