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分词和分词短语的用法--高三英语语法详解

rain0 于2012-03-29发布 l 已有人浏览
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分词和分词短语的用法1) 作定语作定语用的分词如果是单词,一般放在它所修饰的名词之前。如:I'm reading a very interesting book.我在读一本很有趣的书。He likes to drink cold boiled water. 他喜欢喝凉开水。分词短语作定语用时,一般皆放在它所修饰的名词的后面。它的功用相当于定语从句。如:China is a developing socialist country belonging to the Third world.中国是一个发展中的社会主义国家,属于第三世界。(= which belongs to the Third World)The man sitting it the corner is my brother.坐在角落里的那个人是我的兄弟。(= who is sitting in the comer)Most of the people invited to the party did not come.被邀请参加晚会的人多数

分词和分词短语的用法

1) 作定语作定语用的分词如果是单词,一般放在它所修饰的名词之前。如:

I'm reading a very interesting book.我在读一本很有趣的书。

He likes to drink cold boiled water. 他喜欢喝凉开水。

分词短语作定语用时,一般皆放在它所修饰的名词的后面。它的功用相当于定语从句。如:

China is a developing socialist country belonging to the Third world.中国是一个发展中的社会主义国家,属于第三世界。

(= which belongs to the Third World)

The man sitting it the corner is my brother.坐在角落里的那个人是我的兄弟。(= who is sitting in the comer)

Most of the people invited to the party did not come.被邀请参加晚会的人多数没有来。(= who were invited to the party.)

2)作表语

The opera is very moving and instructive.这个歌剧很动人,且有教育意义。

The cups are broken.这些杯子是破的。

He is married.他已经结婚了。

[注] 分词作表语用时,相当于形容词,不可与进行时态和被动语态中的分词混淆起来。它们的形式相似,但可以从意义上加以辨别。试比较:

Lei Feng's spirit is inspiring the people all over the country. 雷锋的精神鼓舞着全国人民。(现在进行时)

His report is inspiring. 他的报告令人鼓舞。(现在分词作表语)

The road was completed by the PLA men.这条路是解放军战士修成的。(被动语态)

The road is completed.这条路已经筑成。(过去分词作表语)

3)作状语分词在意义上也可用作状语,表示时间、原因、方式和伴随情况等。

a)表示时间(在意义上往往相当于表示时间的状语从句)。如:

Looking out of the window,I saw groups of children passing by the house.我从窗口望出去,看见成群的孩子们从房子前面走过。(= When I locked out of the window)

Heated,the metal expands.这种金属加热后即膨胀。(= When it is healed)

Opening the drawer he took out a dictionary.他打开抽屉,拿出一本词典。(= He opened the drawer and took...这两个动作是一个接着一个)

[注]如果要强调分词短语与谓语动词所表示的时间关系,分词短语之前可用when或while等连词。如:

While working in the factory (= While I was working in the factory),I learnt a lot from the workers.我在工厂工作期间,从工人那里学到了很多东西。

When heated,the metal expands.这种金属加热后即膨胀。

b)表示原因(在意义上相当于表示原因的状语从句)。如:

Feeling tired, I telephoned and said I couldn't come to a hospital of Chinese medicine.我感到

累,打电话说我不能去。(= Since I felt tired)

Thinking that Chinese medicine might help,he went to a hospital of Chinese medicine.他想中医也许有效,于是到一家中医医院去治病。(= As he thought that...)

Inspired by the excellent situation they worked even harder.在太好形势的鼓舞下,他们更加努力工作。(= Since they are inspired by...)

c)表示方式、伴随情况及结果(这种用法没有相当的状语从句可以代替)。如:

He came running back to tell us the news.他跑着回来告诉我们这个消息。(方式)

She stood there waiting for the bus.她站在那儿等公共汽车。(伴随情况或方式)

The child fell,striking head against the door and cutting it.小孩摔了一跤,头在门上碰破了。(结果)

He went out slamming the door.他走出去砰地一声把门关上。(伴随情况)

The lichens came borne by storms.这些地衣是由暴风雨带来的。(方式)

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