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躺着就能学英语语法Chapter2-4:不加冠词的情况(MP3)

della1 于2013-07-12发布 l 已有人浏览
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躺着就能学英语语法Chapter2-4讲的是不加冠词的情况,附有Mp3和文本。
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躺着就能学英语语法Chapter2-4:不加冠词的情况

下列情况是不用加冠词的:物质或抽象名词;复数可数名词;节日、日期、月分、季节名词;三餐、球类运动、学科和语言名词;名词前有关系代词;固定短语和惯用法;职务、头衔或称呼语;某类人事物之复数名词。

1.一般来讲,物质名词、抽象名词前不加冠词。
例子:
We can not live without air.
没有空气我们不能生存。

2.泛指的复数可数名词前不加冠词。
例子: We all like books.
          我们都喜欢书。

3.节日、日期、月份、季节名词前不加冠词。
例子:
I was born on April 30, 1978.
我出生在1978年4月30日。
Today is September 10th, Teacher's Day.
今天是九月十日.教师节。

4.在三餐名词、球类运动和表示学科、语言名词前不加冠词。
例子:
I have lunch at twelve.
我在,2点吃午饭。
They are playing football.
他们在踢足球。
They began to learn English last summer.
他们去年夏天开始学习英语。

5.名词前已有关系代词(th i s, that,my, your, some,any,等)时,名词前
  不用冠词。
例子:
That letter is in her bag.
那封信在她的袋子里。
Go down this street.
沿著这条街走。

6.一些固定短语和习惯用语不用定冠词。
例子:
by bus / train / plane搭乘公共汽车(火车、飞机)
in the front of(某一内部里的)前面    
on foot步行
at night在夜里for                    
for example例如
by sea/air乘船(飞机)                 
by bike骑自行车
catch fire着火                       
at home在家
go to bed上床睡觉                    
go to school上学
  
常用必背:
要注意用定冠词和不定冠词的习惯表达。
take place发生           
go to the hospital去某医院
go to school上学         
go to the school去某学校
in the class在班上       
be at the table(坐)在桌子边
by sea乘船               
by the sea在海边
in front of在……前面    
be at (in) school在上学
take the place代替       
be at (in) the school在学校
in class在上课
 

7.在表示职务、头衔或称呼语的名词前不用冠词。
例子:
What's the matter, Grandma?
什么事啊,奶奶?
Doctor, I am not feeling well.
医生,我感到不舒服。
Uncle Wang likes making machines.
王伯伯喜欢制造机器。

8.复数名词前表示一类人或事物时,名词前不用冠词。
例子:
I like cakes.
我喜欢蛋糕。
My father and mother are teachers.
我父亲和母亲是老师。

容易犯错的句子:
1.冬天很寒冷。
错:It's very cold in the winter.
对:It's very cold in winter.
泛指冬天时,winter前面一般不加冠词。同样,“在春天”应说in spring,“在夏天”应说in summer,“在秋天”是in autumn。有时四季前面有关系代词修饰或特定指示的对象时,也与定冠词连用。如:
Fruit must be picked in the autumn.
必须在秋天摘水果。

2.你会踢足球吗?
错:Can you play the football?
错:Can you play footballs?
对:Can you play football?
踢足球应说play football,这里football作“足球运动”解,是不可数名词,前面不用冠词,也不用复数形式。同样,“打篮球”应说play basketball。打排球应说play volleyball,打乒乓球应说play ping pong/table tenniso.他生病了。
错:He's ill in hospital.
对:He's ill in the hospital.
in the hospital的意思是“在医院”,不一定是住院。如:
He works in the hospital.
他在医院工作。

4.在西北部,夜里将有雪。
错:In the Northwest, there will be snow in night.
对:In the Northwest,there will be snow in the night.
对:In the Northwest,there will be snow at night.

at night和in the night是两个固定的习惯用语。不能写为in night。这两个短语都有“在夜里”的意思,一般可互换使用,at night指一天的部分时间(下午时至午夜),in the night指从天黑至天亮这一整段时间。另外,in the evening也有在晚上的意思,evening常指日落或下午6点左右到睡觉前的这段时间。

5.他是医生。
错:He is the doctor.
对:He is a doctor.
可数名词单数前如无修饰成分(物主代词,指示代词,数词等),应用不定冠词a(或an)表示泛指.或加定冠词the表示特定。

6.他们是老师。
错:They are the teachers.
对:They are teachers.
复数名词表示一类人或事物(即表示泛指)时,前面不加定冠词the。又如
Maggie likes bananas a lot.
玛姬非常喜欢吃香蕉。

7.不要躺着看书,这对你的眼睛是有害的。
错:Don't read in the bed,it's bad for your eyes.
错:Don't read on the bed,it's bad for your eyes.
对:Don't read in bed,it's bad for your eyes.

inbed的意思是“躺着,睡着”,bed在这里可以理解为抽象化的名词,不指具体的某一张床,因此前面不用限制词,也不用复数形式。in (on) the bed的意思是“在床上”.是具体意义的某一张床。

8.我想我(患)感冒了。
错:I think I've had cold./I think I've taken a cold.
对:I think I've caught cold / caught a cold / got a cold.
“患感冒,在英语中可以说catch/get (a) cold,have a cold ( a一定不可省
去)。但应注意的是,如。old前有形容词修饰时,不论。old与哪一个动词搭配,都要与冠词a连用。She has caught a very bad cold.
她患了重感冒。(此时冠词a不可省略)

9.她们是孪生姐妹(双胞胎)。她们看起来很像。
错:They are twins. They look same.
对:They are twins. They look the same.
same不管作形容词还是代词,也不论same在句中作主语还是关系代词,若没有其他关系代词修饰,通常与定冠词the连用。
We like the same music, the same food, and the same books.
我们喜欢同样的音乐.同样的食物和同样的书籍。

10.我希望他没有遇到困难。
错:He's not in the trouble, I hope.
对:He's not in trouble, I hope.
对:I hope (that) he's not in trouble.
in trouble的意思是“处于困难中”“处于困境中”。注意trouble前没有定冠词the。

11.奶奶,你怎么啦?
错:What's matter with you, Grandma?
对:What's wrong with you, Grandma?
对:What's the matter with you, Grandma?
当matter作“麻烦事”“毛病”解时,常与定冠词the连用。表示“……
怎么啦?”可以说:What's the matter with...?也可以说:What's wrong
with...?

12.太阳比地球大。
错:Sun is bigger than earth.A sun is bigger than an earth.
对:The sun is bigger than the earth.
世界上独一无二的事物,前面应加定冠词the。又如:the moon(月亮),the sea(海洋).the land(陆地)。

13.第三个蛋糕是最好的,但是太贵。
错:Third cake is best of all, but it's too expensive.
对:The third cake is the best of all, but it's too expensive.
序数词和形容词最高级前必须加定冠词the,不可省略。注意,副词最高级前the可以省去。Who jumped (the) farthest of all?谁跳得最远?

14.我想买半公斤肉。
错:I want to buy half kilo of meat.
对:I want to buy a half kilo of meat.
对:I want to buy half a kilo of meat.
“半公斤”习惯上应说half a kil。但也可以说a half kilo, half和名词连用时,一般结构为“half+the/a(或其他限定词)+名词”如:
Half the world's telephone calls are made in English.
世界上一半的电话是用英语打的。

15.他非常喜欢住在台湾。
错:He enjoys living in the Taiwan very much.
对:He enjoys living in Taiwan very much.
在专有名词(人名、地名、国名等)前一般不用冠词。例如:America(美国),Mike(麦克).Grade(年级),Taipei(台北)。

16.我们坐公共汽车去好吗?
错:Shall we go by a bus?/Shall we go by the bus?
对:Shall we go by bus?
by bus在这里指乘(坐)交通工具,介词by的意思是“乘(车、船)”。注意by后面的名词用单数形式,名词前不用冠词。又如:by bike(骑自行车),by plane(坐飞机),by train(坐火车),但步行应用on foot。

17.她通常在晚饭后看半小时的电视。
错:She usually watches TV for half an hour after the supper.
对:She usually watches TV for half an hour after supper.
在一餐饭(表泛指时)前一般不用冠词。又如:We have breakfast in the
morning.我们在早晨吃早饭。但特指某顿饭或三餐名词前有关系代词修饰时,常用冠词。如:
She quickly cooked the supper, and cleaned the house.
她很快地做了晚饭,并打扫了房子。
After a quick breakfast, she hurried to school.
她很快地吃完早饭后就急急忙忙去上学了。

18.它是一匹相当好的马。
错:It's very a nice horse.
对:It's a very nice horse.
对:It's quite a nice horse.
对:It's a quite nice horse.
“一匹相当好的马”可以说:quite a nice horse,也可以说:a quite nice horse。在口语中,前者较常用。但不可说very a nice horse,只能说a very nice horse.

19.“a number of "and" the number of”有什么区别?
a number of的意思是“许多”“若干”,后接可数名词的复数形式,the number of的意思是“……的数量(数目)”,后接可数名词的复数形式,作主语时,be动词用单数形式。试比较:
A number of students went to the park today.
许多学生都去了公园。
The number of students in our class is fifty.
我们班的学生人数是50名。

20.序数词前常与定冠词the连用,但有时也与不定冠词a (an)连用,它们有什么区别?
序数词前用the侧重顺序,序数词前用a (an)不侧重顺序,表示“再一”“又一”的意思,例如:
There's a third boy. He's very tall.
又有一个男孩(前面已出现两个男孩),他个子很高。
Mr. and Mrs. Shute had a daughter called Jane. Then they had a second child一a son.
舒特夫妇有一个女)L叫珍。后来他们又有了一个孩子—儿子。

21. on the earth和on earth有什么区别?
on the earth的意思是“在地球上”oon earth的意思是“在世上”,相当于in the world。另外on earth还可作“究竟”“到底”“全然”解,多用于疑问句,否定句或最高级后面加强语气。例如:
That means that in about 600 years, there will only be standing room on the earth.
那就是说大约过600年以后,地球上只有立足之地了。
What on earth are you doing here?
你究竟来这儿做什么?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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