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躺着就能学英语语法Chapter9-4:单个动词和动词短语(MP3)

della1 于2013-07-16发布 l 已有人浏览
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躺着就能学英语语法Chapte9-4讲的是单个动词和动词短语,附有Mp3和文本。
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躺着就能学英语语法Chapter9-4:单个动词和动词短语

1.动词+副词(pick up, wake up, take off )
2.动词+介词(I isten to, agree with)
3.动词+副词+介词(catch up with, go on with )
4.动词+名词+介词(take care of)
5. be+形容词+介词(be interested in, be angry with)

根据构词方式,动词可分为单个动词和动词短语。
单个动词:由一个单词构成。如:come,go, eat, run等。
动词短语:由两个或两个以上单词构成。由于动词短语用法的复杂性,这一节着重讲动词短语。

POINT 1 动词短语的四种常见组合
1.动词+副词:这种结构有时相当于及物动词。
例子:put on (the coat)穿上(大衣)
    pick up (the pen)捡起(钢笔)
    put away (the things)把(东西)放好
    pass on (the stick)传递(接力棒)
A.如果动副结构的宾语是代词,应把宾语放在动词和副词之间。如果宾语是名词,既可放在动词和副词之间,也可放在动词短语之后。
例子:
She picked it up and gave it to me.
她把它捡起来并还给我。
Karen put it on and then took it off.
凯伦把它穿上又脱下。
The doctor looked him over.
医生给他作了检查。
You'd better look up the word/look the word up.
你最好在字典里查这个单词。

B.“动词十副词”结构有时相当于一个不及物动词。
wake up醒来
hurry off匆匆来去
get back回来
get down下来
例子:
I always get up at six.
我总是6点钟起床。
I can't get down.
我不下来了。
The children wake up very early.
孩子们醒得很早。

C.有不少动词短语既可以作及物动词,又可以作不及物动词用。
例子:His motorcycle hit the sidewalk and he fell off.(fall off作不及物动词)
        他的摩托车撞到人行道上,他就摔倒了。
        He fell off his bike and hurt himself. ( fall off作及物动词)
        他从自行车上摔了下来.受伤了。

2.动词+介词:动词和介词构成的动词短语相当于一个及物动词后面跟宾语。
listen to听
send for派人去……
arrive at(in)到达
play with和··一玩
knock on敲
agree with同意某人的意见
例子:Look at these beautiful birds!
          看这些漂亮的小鸟!
      The children are listening to their teacher.
          孩子们正在听老师说话。

3.动词+副词+介词:这种结构相当于一个及物动词。
catch up with赶上
go on with继续
look out of向……外看
go in for爱好
例子:Let's go on with the work.
          让我们继续做这项工作吧。
      Most girls do not go in for football games.
          多数女孩不爱好足球比赛。

4.动词+名词+介词:这类动词短语是及物的,名词前可以用形容词作修饰。
make friends with与……交朋友take care of照料、爱护
例子:
We take good care of books.
我们好好地爱惜书籍。
I always make friends with other people.
我总是和身边的人交朋友。

5.此外"be+形容词+介词”也可看作是一种动词短语。
be interested in对……感兴趣
be worried about因……担心
be angry with对……生气
be strict with对……要求严格
例子:
The boss is strict with us.
老板对我们严格要求。
The teacher is angry with Mary.
老师对玛丽生气了。
Edison was interested in science.
爱迪生对科学感兴趣。

POINT 2 常用动词短语归纳
1.动词十副词
常用必背:
come along陪伴
come down降下
dress up装扮
fall over倒下
get up起床
go on继续
hurry off匆忙离开
put away将……收起来
sit down坐下
wear out穿破(坏)
come on加油、赶快
come around走过来、过来
fall behind落在后面
get down下来
go home回家
hold on稍等别挂断
look around环顾四周
send away解雇
try on试穿

2.动词+介词
常用必背:
be made of由……制成
agree with同意(某人)意见
fall off(从)……掉下来
get along with与……相处得
get ready for为……作准备
be used for用来
catch up with赶上……
find out弄清楚
get on上(车)
get to到达
hear from收到……的来信
knock at敲
laugh at嘲笑
look over检查(身体)
move away搬走
play with玩弄
point to指向(远处)
prefer to宁愿……而不
pull up from从……拉上来
ring up给某人打电话
stop...from…阻止……做……
think about考虑、仔细想
wait for等待
write down写下、记下
hear of听说
bump into意外碰到……
listen to听
look up查询
pass on...to将……传到
pay for赔偿、赔款
point at指向(近处)
pull out of从……拉出来
put on穿上
send for派人去请、延请
take off脱掉
try out试验出
wake up唤醒
worry about为……而担心

3.动词+名词+介词
常用必背:
have a drink of喝点
have a look at看一下
take a message for为……捎信
leave a message for给……留言
make friends with与……交朋友
take care of照顾

4.动词+名词
常用必背:
copy one's example仿照(某人的)样子
have a meeting开一次会
give a talk做一次演讲(报告)
catch a cold感冒
change one's mind改变主意
have a swim游泳
have a wash洗涤
have a fever发烧
have a cough咳嗽
take a rest休息一下
make a mistake犯错
make faces扮鬼脸
take a look看一下
make a wish许愿、希望
take one's time不急.慢慢来
make tea泡茶

容易犯错的句子:
1.今天下午将有一场足球赛。
错:There is going to have a football match this afternoon.
对:There is going to be a football match this afternoon.
there be表示“存在,,,其将来时用there is (are) going to be,不用there is(are) going to have。

2.我可以借你的脚踏车吗?
错:May I lend your bike?
对:May I borrow your bike?
borrow是指借别人的东西,有“借入”之意;而lend是把东西借给别人,有“借出”之意。

3.这本书我可以借多久?
错:How long may I borrow the book?
对:How long may I keep the book?
borrow是非延续性动词,不能与表示一段时间的问句开头how long连用,而要用keep表示持续的时间。

4.他急忙到教室里去。
错:He hurried to go to the classroom.
对:He hurried to the classroom.
对:He went to the classroom in a hurry.
hurry本身就有“急忙去”“赶紧去”的意思,故不必在后面再加to go。也可以在动词后面用介词短语in a hurry(匆忙地)。

5.他是去年去世的。
错:He was dead last year.
对:He died last year.
be dead表示“死”的状态.此处应用die表示“死”的动作。

6.我想把这些书带到教室去。
错:I want to bring these books to the classroom.
对:I want to take these books to the classroom.
bring表示“从别处把某人或某物,带到或拿到说话者身边”,而take则表示“从说话者身边.把某人或某物带到别处去”。

7.我大约4点钟到家。
错:I get to home at about 4.
对:I get home at about 4.
get作“到达”解时是不及物动词。若其后面跟副词,则不需要加to。如:get home(到家),get here(到达这儿),get
there(到达那儿),若后面想跟名词,则须在名词前加to。They got to Japan yesterday.他们昨天到达日本。

8.我把我的钢笔忘在家里了。
错:I forgot my pen at home.
对:I left my pen at home.
forget可作“忘记”解,但若表示“把某物忘在某处”不能用forget,应用“leave sth.+地点状语”。

9.那个人对着小孩大喊。
错:he man cried at the little boy.
对:The man shouted at the little boy.
cry是由于“恐怖”“悲哀”“痛苦”“祈求”等原因而喊叫,而shout是由于“欢乐”“赞赏”或为“引起注意”而喊叫。表示“对谁
喊,,用shout at。

10.你听到那消息了吗?
错:Have you listened to the news?
对:Have you heard the news?
hear是“听见”“听到”的意思,指听觉器官接触到声音,表示听见的结果,但不一定会有注意或有意地听的意味,listen (to)意为“听”表示有意识地听,但不一定听到。He listened, but he could hear nothing.他侧耳倾听,但什么声音也听不到。

11.他来向我要一本书。
错:He came and asked me a book.
对:He came and asked me for a book.
表示“向某人要某物”应说ask sb. for sth.而ask sb是“向某人提问”的意思。May I ask you a question?我可以问你一个问题吗?

12.让我们互相学习、彼此帮助吧!
错:Let's help each other and learn each other.
对:Let's help each other and learn from each other.
each othe提复合代词,常用作及物动词或介词的宾语,不能用做副词来修饰动词。表示“向某人学习”的意思时,应说}earn from sb.,这时learn为不及物动词。

I3.我感到不舒服。
错:I'm feeling not well.
对:I'm not feeling well.
误句是“硬译”,不符合英语习惯。中译英的否定副词,译成英语时往往是否定动词。

14.你已经收到吉姆的来信了吗?
错:Have you heard from Jim's letter yet?
对:Have you received (gotten) a letter from Jim yet?
对:Have you heard from Jim yet?
误句中犯了按中文硬译的错误。在英语中.表示“收到某人的来信”应用“hear from sb.”或receive/get a letter from sb。

15.他发生了什么事?
错:What did he happen?
对:What happened to him?
在英语中,表示“某人(物)发生某事”应用sth. happen to sb. / sth.句型,其主语通常是sth.。

16.昨天的作业花了我两个小时。
错:Yesterday's homework spent me two hours.
对:I spent two hours (in) doing yesterday's homework.
spend的主语一般是人,而不是物。表示“花费某人多少时间于做某事”可用sb. spend time on sth/(in) doing sth.或“It takes sb. some time to do sth.”句型。

17.你们尽力踢。我们一定会赢他们。
错:Play as well as you can, and we're sure to win them.
对:Play as well as you can, and we're sure to beat them.
win作“赢”讲,其宾语通常是game, match, race等。不能与表示人的名词连用.表示在“比赛、战斗”等中击败某人要用“beat sb. in..."。
比较:
Who won the girl's 400 meters?
谁在女子400米比赛中获胜?
We beat them in the football match.
在足球赛中我们赢了他们。

18.那匹马刚走过了桥。
错:The horse walked cross the bridge just now.
对:The horse went across the bridge just now.
walk通常用于指人的“行走”或者牛、骆驼等行动迟缓动物的行走,g。则可泛指用于人或其他一切动物,也可用于车辆。另外,across和cross虽只是一个字母之差,但其词性不同,cross(穿过、横过)是及物动词,后面直接跟宾语。across是介词,常与动词go、walk等字连用,后跟名词。
比较:
He crossed the river.
他渡过了那条河。
He swam across the river.
他游过了那条河。

19.你在找什么?
错:What are you finding?
对:What are you looking for?
look for和find}[3有“找”的意思。look for是“寻找”,强调“找”的动作,find是“找到”“发现”.强调“找”的结果。

20.他穿上大衣,走了出去。
错:He wore his coat and went out.
对:He put on his coat and went out.
put on表示“穿”的动作,wear表示“穿着”“戴着”的状态。

21.你会说英语吗?
错:Can you say English?
对:Can you speak English?
“说英语”应用speak English,这里speak是及物动词,后跟表示某种语言的名词作宾语,say一般指用系统的语言表示自己的思想,着重说话的内容。
比较:
Can you speak English?
你会讲英语吗?
Can you say it in English?
你能用英语把它说出来吗?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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