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Ted例举实用短语so that, at all和sort of的用法

kira86 于2020-09-28发布
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在最近的《每日语法》报道中,今天,我们将探讨三种常见的实用短语表达。1) so that 2)at all 3) sort of
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Three Useful Phrasal Expressions

三种实用短语表达

In a recent Everyday Grammar report, we explored phrasal expressions. Phrasal expressions are groups of words that take on a special meaning. This meaning is different from what the individual words suggest.

在最近的《每日语法》报道中,我们探讨了短语表达。短语表达是具有特殊含义的词组。其含义与单个单词的含义不同。

Today we will explore three common, useful phrasal expressions. You will hear how people use them in everyday speech and in presentations, such as TED Talks.

今天,我们将探讨三种常见的实用短语表达。你将听到人们在日常说话中以及像TED演讲等展示中是如何使用它们的。

What are phrasal expressions?

什么是短语表达?

Phrasal expressions have somewhat unusual meanings. If you look up each individual word in the dictionary, you still might not understand them as a group.

短语表达有一些不寻常的含义。如果你在字典中查找每个单词,可能仍然无法理解它们作为一个整体的含义。

Here is an example. In our earlier report, we described the phrasal expression ‘by the way.’ ‘By the way’ means that the person speaking is going to introduce a new subject to a discussion.

如下例所示。在我们之前的报告中,我们描述了短语表达“by the way” (顺便说一句)。“by the way”意味着讲话者将要在讨论中引入新话题。

There are thousands of phrasal expressions in English.* In today’s report, we will explore the expressions so that, at all, and sort of.

英语中有成千上万的短语表达。在今天的报告中,我们将探讨“so that”,“at all”和“sort of”等表达的用法。

#1 so that

以便;以免;所以

Our first phrasal expression is ‘so that.’ ‘So that’ can be used in an explanation or to describe a purpose. It generally introduces a subordinate clause – a group of words with a subject and a verb. The subordinate clause plays a part in a longer sentence.

我们要探讨的第一个短语表达是“so that”。“so that”可用于解释或描述目的。它通常引入从句,也就是带有主语和动词的一组单词。引入的从句在更长的句子中起作用。

Here is an example. Imagine you are explaining how to park a car on a very steep hill.

如下例所示,想象一下你正在解释如何在陡峭的山坡上停车。

Be sure to set the emergency brake so that the car does not roll away.

“确保紧急刹车,以免汽车滚落。”

The first part of the sentence – Be sure to set the emergency brake – is a complete sentence. The words ‘so that’ introduce a clause that explains or describes the purpose for setting the brake.

句子的第一部分“Be sure to set the emergency brake”是一个完整的句子。短语 “so that”引入从句,解释或描述刹车的目的。

Let’s listen to an example of how a speaker might use 'so that’ in a presentation. In this TED Talk, Sara-Jane Dunn talks about programming cells.

让我们来听演讲者可能如何在展示中使用“so that”的示例。在这段TED演讲中,莎拉简·邓恩谈到了单元编程。

“And then those programs must operate in a distributed way across individual cells, so that they can coordinate and that plant can grow and flourish.”

“然后,这些程序必须在各个单元中以分布式方式运行,这样它们就可以相协调,植物就可以茁壮生长。”

#2 at all

(否定句)根本;究竟

Our second phrasal expression is ‘at all.’ ‘At all’ means to any extent or in any way. It can make statements stronger. It acts like an adverb in the sentence.

我们的第二个短语表达是“at all”。“at all”表示在任何程度上或以任何方式。它可以使陈述更有力。“at all”就像句子中的副词一样。

Unlike ‘so that,’ ‘at all’ does not introduce a clause. English speakers mostly use it in the middle or at the end of a sentence.

与“so that”不同,“at all”不引入从句。讲英语的人大多将其用在句中或句尾。

Here is an example.

如下例所示。

Tom came to dinner last night, but he didn’t eat at all! He must have been worried about something.

“汤姆昨晚来吃晚饭,但他根本没吃!他一定是很担心什么事。”

The reason the speaker used ‘at all’ is to highlight that Tom did not eat. ‘At all’ makes the statement stronger.

演讲者使用“at all”是为了强调汤姆没吃饭。“at all” 让这句话更有力。

‘At all’ is common in speaking and writing. Let’s listen to how Amy Padnani, an editor at the New York Times, uses ‘at all’ in a 2019 TED Talk.

“at all”在口语和写作中很普遍。让我们听听《纽约时报》的编辑艾米·帕德纳尼在2019年的TED演讲中是如何使用“at all”的。

“There were moments when I faced great self-doubt. I wondered if I was crazy or if I was all alone, and if I should just give up. When I’ve seen the reaction to this project, I know I’m not at all alone.”

“有些时候,我会陷入巨大的自我怀疑中。我想知道我是疯了还是我一直是独自一人,我是否应该放弃。当我看到对这个项目的反应时,我知道我并不是独自一人。”

#3 sort of

有几分地;到某种程度;稍稍

Our third phrasal expression is ‘sort of.’ ‘Sort of’ means in some way or to some extent.

我们的第三个短语表达是“sort of”。“sort of”表示在某种程度上。

Unlike our other phrasal expressions, ‘sort of’ is informal. ‘Sort of’ is used in everyday speech. You will generally not see it in writing.

与我们探讨的其他短语表达不同,“sort of”是非正式的说法,用于日常讲话。通常不会以书面形式出现。

‘Sort of’ can stand alone as a statement, as in:

“sort of”可以单独作为陈述句使用,例如:

Do you agree with that?

“你同意那个吗?

Sort of...

有点...”

‘Sort of’ can also appear in a longer sentence, as in:

“sort of”还可以出现在较长的句子中,例如:

She was sort of nice.

“她挺好的。”

You might hear Americans reduce 'sort of' to something that sounds like 'sorta.'

你可能会听到美国人将“sort of”简化,听起来就像“ sorta”。

Let’s listen to how a speaker uses ‘sort of’ in a presentation. In this example, Jon M. Chu talks about filmmaking. Listen to how he uses ‘sort of’ as a kind of adverb.

让我们听听演讲者在展示中如何使用“sort of”。在此示例中,朱浩伟在谈论电影制作。注意听他如何将 “ sort of”作为副词使用。

You can plan, you can write scripts, you can do your storyboards, but at a certain point, your movie will speak back to you, and it’s your job to listen. It’s this living organism and it sort of presents itself, so you better catch it before it slips through your hands...

“你可以规划,可以写剧本,可以制作故事板,但在特定的节点,你的电影会回应你,而你的工作就是聆听。电影是一个活的有机体,它在某种程度上可以展示自己,所以在它从你手中溜走前,你最好抓住它……”

Closing thoughts

总结

You have learned about three common phrasal expressions. Now be sure to practice using them whenever you can. Look and listen for other phrasal expressions and keep a record of your findings. With time, and practice, you will use more and more phrasal expressions with ease.

你已经了解了三种常见的短语表达。现在,请确保尽可能地练习使用它们。注意看和听其他的短语表达,并记录下你的发现。随着时间和练习的积累,你将会轻松地使用越来越多的短语表达。

I'm Ashley Thompson.

我是阿什莉·汤普森。

And I'm John Russell.

我是约翰·拉塞尔。

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