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与“Off”有关的几个常用动词短语

kira86 于2021-03-23发布
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很多人都觉得背动词短语很费劲,因为每个动词和不同的小词相结合都有不同的含义,VOA名师分享4个与off有关的动词短语,并告诉你怎样记短语更快。
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Common Phrasal Verbs with ‘Off'

与“Off”有关的几个常用动词短语

Today, we are going to talk about phrasal verbs.

今天,我们来聊聊动词短语。

You may remember that a phrasal verb is a verb plus one or two more words called "particles." Particles can be prepositions or adverbs. There are several common particles in phrasal verbs, such as the word "off." One example of a phrasal verb is "go off."

大家可能还记得,动词短语是一个动词加上1个或2个小品词。小品词可以是介词或副词。动词短语中有多个常见的小品词,比如“off”。举个动词短语的例子是“go off”。

Phrasal verbs usually have idiomatic meanings. In other words, the verb and particle together mean something different from what each individual word suggests.

动词短语通常都有惯用含义。也就是说,动词和小品词搭配在一起后的含义可能与其中单独的单词含义不同。

The phrasal verb "go off," for instance, is made of the verb "go" and the particle "off." But "go off" can mean to make a sudden loud noise.

动词短语“go off”是由动词“go”和小品词“off”组成的。但“go off”可以表示突发巨响的意思。

The English language contains a lot of phrasal verbs. Luckily, you do not need to know all of them. Some are more common than others.

英语中有很多动词短语。所幸大家不必了解所有动词短语。其中一些动词短语会更为常见一些。

A listening exercise

听力练习

On today's Everyday Grammar program, we will talk about four common phrasal verbs with the word "off." They are "go off," "put off" "drop off" and "pay off." As you will learn today, some of these verbs can be separated by other words. Others cannot.

在今天的《每日语法》节目中,我们会聊一些带有“off”的常见动词短语,即go off、put off和pay off。这几个短语中,有的短语中间可以插入其他词,有的则不能。

Let's do a short listening exercise.

我们来做一个简短的听力练习吧。

Listen to this speaker talk about starting his day. Pay attention to the four phrasal verbs with "off" and make a mental note that some are separated by other words:

请听一位讲者聊自己一天的开始。请注意带有“off”的4个动词短语并在脑海中记住其中一些动词短语中间可以插入其他词:

This morning, as my alarm went off, I remembered that I have a few important things to do today. It has been a busy week, but I can't put these tasks off any longer. First, I have to drop some donations off at local food banks. Then, I am going to pay off my car loan. I am so excited to make the final payment!

今早我闹钟响的时候,我记起我今天有一些重要的事情要做。这一周很忙,但这些任务不能再拖下去了。首先,我得去当地的食物银行捐点东西。然后,我得去还车贷。我太激动了,因为这是尾款!

Did you catch all four verbs? And did notice that some were separated by other words while others were not? Good.

你听清四个动词了吗?有没有注意到有些单词被其他单词隔开,而有些则没有呢?好的。

Now, let's examine meanings for each verb and talk about how to use them. Note that each of today's verbs has more than one meaning; we will focus on the meanings used in the listening exercise.

现在,我们来看看每个动词的意思,并讨论一下如何使用它们。请注意,今天的每个动词都有不止一个意思,我们将重点关注听力练习中用到的意思哦。

Go off (intransitive verb)

突发巨响(不及物动词)

The verb "go off" means to make a sudden loud noise. We use this meaning in relation to alarms on machines or electronics, such as an alarm clock or a phone alarm or fire alarm.

“go off”是突发巨响的意思。我们用这个含义的时候是与机器或电子产品发出警报有关,比如闹钟或手机闹铃或火警警报器。

Listen again to how our speaker used it:

再听一下讲者是如何使用它的吧:

This morning, as my alarm went off, I remembered that I have a few important things to do today.

今早我闹钟响的时候,我记起我今天有一些重要的事情要做。

Notice that the speaker used the simple past tense form of the verb "go," which is "went."

请注意,讲者在这里使用了动词“go”的一般过去式形式,也就是“went”。

Go off is what we call an intransitive verb.

“go off”就是我们所说的不及物动词短语。

Transitive or intransitive

及物还是不及物

Phrasal verbs in English are either transitive or intransitive.

英语中的动词短语分为及物和不及物。

A transitive verb needs a direct object to express a complete thought. A direct object is a person or thing that receives the action of the verb.

及物动词需要一个直接宾语才能表达完整的想法。直接宾语是接受动词所表达动作的人或事物。

Intransitive verbs, such as "go off," do not have a direct object. And they are not separable. That means, in sentences, we cannot separate them with other words.

不及物动词短语是没有直接宾语的,如“go off”。而且不及物动词短语是不可拆分的。也就是说,在句子中,我们无法在不及物动词短语中间插入其他词。

But, transitive phrasal verbs can be separable or inseparable. That means you can put the direct object in the middle of the verb or after it.

但及物动词短语既可拆分,也可不拆分。也就是说,直接宾语可以放在中间,也可以放在后面。

Put off (something)

推迟(某事)

Put (something) off

将(某事)推迟

A good example of a transitive and separable phrasal verb is "put off." It means to delay something or decide it will happen at a later time.

可拆分及物动词短语的一个很好的例子就是“put off”。该短语的意思是推迟或者决定让某事在晚一些时候发生。

Here is how our speaker used it:

请听下面听力中讲者是如何使用该短语的:

It has been a busy week but I can't put these tasks off any longer.

这一周很忙,但这些任务不能再拖下去了。

Can you find the direct object in the sentence? It is "these tasks." Notice that this object appears in the middle of the verb.

大家能找到句子中的直接宾语吗?直接宾语就是“these tasks”。注意这里的宾语是在动词和介词中间。

Again, with separable phrasal verbs, direct objects can appear after the verb. So how would the sentence read then? Think about it as we move to our next verb.

需要再次强调的是:对于可拆分的动词短语来说,直接宾语也是可以出现在后面的。如果放在后面的话,上面那句话要怎样读呢?大家先想着,我们来讲下一个动词短语。

Drop off (something)

卸下(某物)

Drop (something) off

将(某物)卸下

Next up is the verb "drop off." It means to take something or someone to a place and then leave. This verb is also transitive and separable.

下一个是动词“drop off”,意思是把某物或某人带到一个地方,然后离开。这个动词也是及物动词,动词介词可以分开。

Here is how our speaker used it a moment ago:

我们的讲者刚才是这样使用的:

First, I have to drop some donations off at local food banks.

首先,我得去当地的食物银行捐点东西。

Notice that the speaker separated the verb "drop off" by the direct object "some donations."

注意,说话者用直接宾语“some donations”把动词短语“drop off”分开。

Since it is possible to put the direct object after this verb, let's hear how that would sound:

既然可以把直接宾语放在这个动词短语后面,我们来听一下它的发音:

First, I have to drop off some donations at local food banks.

首先,我得去当地的食物银行捐点东西。

Both ways of using separable phrasal verbs are common and grammatically correct. And there is no change in meaning.

这两种使用可分离动词短语的方式都很常见,并且在语法上都是正确的。意义没有改变。

Pay off (something)

还清(某项款)

Pay (something) off

将(某项款)付清

Finally, we have the verb "pay off." It means to complete payment on something that you owe, such as a bill or a loan. This verb, too, is transitive and separable.

今天的最后一个动词短语是“pay off”。该短语的意思是还清自己所欠的钱,比如账单或贷款。这个动词短语也是可拆分的及物动词短语。

Do you remember how it was used? The speaker talked about his car loan. Here is what he said:

大家还记得可拆分及物动词短语的用法吗?这位讲者在提到贷款时是这样说的:

Then, I am going to pay off my car loan. I am so excited to make the final payment!

然后,我得去还车贷。我太激动了,因为这是尾款!

The speaker did not separate the verb with the direct object. However, if he had put the object in the middle, how would the sentence read then? Think about it for a moment.

讲者在这句话中并没有把直接宾语插在中间。不过,如果讲者把宾语插在中间的话,那这句话要怎样读呢?大家思考一下吧。

Closing thoughts

总结

Well, that brings us to the end of today's program.

今天节目就到此结束啦。

Phrasal verbs can be difficult, but often their particles provide clues to their meanings. For example, many phrasal verbs with the particle "off" relate to separating, completing or ending something.

动词短语可能很难,但它们的小词通常能提供理解其含义的线索。例如,很多动词短语都有“off”这个词,意思是分开、完成或结束某物。

I'm Alice Bryant.

爱丽丝·布莱恩特为您播报。

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