10种最有效学习方法庸才秒变天才 英语教育资讯

jo19870724 于2013-03-28发布 l 已有人浏览
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In a world as fast-changing and full of information as our own, every one of us —from schoolchildren to college students to working adults —needs to know how to learn well. Yet evidence suggests that most of us don’t use the learning techniques that science has proved most effective. Worse, research finds that learning strategies we do commonly employ, like rereading and highlighting, are among the least effective.  

The scientific literature evaluating these techniques stretches back decades and across thousands of articles. It’s far too extensive and complex for the average parent, teacher or employer to siftthrough. Fortunately, a team of five leading psychologists have now done the job for us。

In a comprehensive report released on Jan. 9 by the Association for Psychological Science, the authors, led by Kent State University professor John Dunlosky, closely examine 10 learning tactics and rate each from high to low utility on the basis of the evidence they’ve amassed. Here is a quick guide to the report’s conclusions:
1月9日,美国心理科学协会发布了一篇全面的报告。肯特州大学的教授John Dunlosky同其他作者一起,仔细研究了十种学习技巧,并基于他们收集的证据,根据实用性的高低给这些学习技巧打了分。以下是报告结论的大致内容:

The Worst 

Highlighting and underliningled the authors’ list of ineffective learning strategies. Although they are common practices, studies show they offer no benefit beyond simply reading the text. Some research even indicates that highlighting can get in the way of learning; because it draws attention to individual facts, it may hamperthe process of making connections and drawing inferences。

Nearly as bad is the practice of rereading, a common exercise that is much less effective than some of the better techniques you can use. Lastly, summarizing, or writing down the main points contained in a text, can be helpful for those who are skilled at it, but again, there are far better ways to spend your study time. Highlighting, underlining, rereading and summarizing were all rated by the authors as being of “low utility。”

The Best 

In contrast to familiar practices like highlighting and rereading, the learning strategies with the most evidence to support them aren’t well known outside the psych lab. Take distributed practice, for example. This tactic involves spreading out your study sessions, rather than engaging in one marathon。

Cramming information at the last minute may allow you to get through that test or meeting, but the material will quickly disappear from memory. It’s much more effective to dipinto the material at intervals over time. And the longer you want to remember the information, whether it’s two weeks or two years, the longer the intervals should be。

The second learning strategy that is highly recommended by the report’s authors is practice testing. Yes, more tests —but these are not for a grade. Research shows that the mere act of calling information to mind strengthens that knowledge and aids in future retrieval。

While practice testing is not a common strategy —despite the robustevidence supporting it —there is one familiar approach that captures its benefits: using flash cards. And now flash cards can be presented in digital form. Both spaced-out learning, or distributed practice, and practice tests were rated as having “high utility” by the authors。

The Rest 

The remainder of the techniques evaluated by Dunlosky and his colleagues fell into the middle ground —not useless, but not especially effective either. These include:

Mental imagery, or coming up with pictures that help you remember text (which is time-consuming and only works with text that lends itself to images);

Elaborative interrogation, or asking yourself “why” as you read (which is kind of annoying, like having a 4-year-old tugging at your sleeve);

Self-explanation, or forcing yourself to explain the text in detail instead of passively reading it over (its effectiveness depends on how complete and accurate your explanations are);

Interleaved practice, or mixing up different types of problems (there is not much evidence to show that this is helpful, outside of learning motor tasks);

And lastly thekeywordmnemonic, or associating new vocabulary words, usually in a foreign language, with an English word that sounds similar —so, for example, learning the French word for key, la clef, by imagining a key on top of a cliff (which is a lot of work to remember a single word)。
最后是关键词助记,即把新的词汇(通常是一门外语)与英语读音相近的词联系在一起,举例来说,学习法语词表示“钥匙”的单词 la clef 的时候,想想一把钥匙放在悬崖(cliff)上(这样记单词要花很多功夫)。

All these techniques were rated of “moderate” to “low” utility by Dunlosky et al because either there isn’t enough evidence yet to be able to recommend them or they’re just not a very good use of your time. Much better, say the authors, to spread out your learning, ditchyour highlighter and get busy with your flash cards。

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