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富士康大胆押注印度(双语)

cocotang 于2015-08-13发布 l 已有人浏览
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几天前,富士康(Foxconn)刚刚宣布了斥资50亿美元在印度西部建立一家工厂的计划。昨天,这家台湾电子产品制造商又与中国的小米(Xiaomi)签约合作,将利用自己在印度南部不久前启动的第二家工厂为后者生产智能手机,这凸显出富士康在印度的抱负是多么远大。

Just days after unveiling plans to build a $5bn factory in western India, Taiwanese electronics maker Foxconn yesterday underlined the scale of its Indian ambitions by signing a tie-up to assemble smartphones for China’s Xiaomi at a second recently opened facility in the south of the country.

几天前,富士康(Foxconn)刚刚宣布了斥资50亿美元在印度西部建立一家工厂的计划。昨天,这家台湾电子产品制造商又与中国的小米(Xiaomi)签约合作,将利用自己在印度南部不久前启动的第二家工厂为后者生产智能手机,这凸显出富士康在印度的抱负是多么远大。 

Foxconn’s plans have caught attention both for their scope and speed. Anxious Indian politicians worried for years that they might never be able to entice global companies to set up the type of huge, labour-intensive factory that Foxconn made famous, and which in turn helped to power China’s economic rise.

富士康的计划因其规模和速度引起了关注。多年来,焦虑的印度政客担心,他们可能永远也无法吸引跨国企业到印度设立巨型的劳动力密集型工厂。因富士康而闻名于世的这类工厂,帮助中国实现了经济崛起。 

But now the company’s founder and chairman,Terry Gou, seems to be in a rush not only to open up new facilities, but to do so at a pace that is set to see India catch up with China and become Foxconn’s second major manufacturing base in Asia — assuming, of course, that his ambitions do not get caught up in the country’s treacherous bureaucracy.

但如今,富士康创始人、董事长郭台铭(Terry Gou)似乎不但急于在印度建立新工厂,而且急于以较快的速度建厂——按照这个速度,印度将赶上中国、成为富士康在亚洲的第二个主要生产基地。当然,前提是这一抱负不要被变幻莫测的印度官僚政治拖后腿。 

“We’ve had dramas before here when big investors come in, but then often they get stuck,” says Arun Maira, an author and former chairman of Boston Consulting Group in India. “It is great news they are coming with big plans, but other companies may not follow Foxconn in. They will wait and see how far they get.” 

“以前当大投资者进来时,也曾引起过轰动,但后来他们往往陷入困境。”作家、波士顿咨询集团(BCG)印度公司前董事长阿伦?迈拉(Arun Maira)说,“他们正带着宏伟计划来这里,这是个天大的好消息,但其他企业或许不会追随富士康而来。它们将等着瞧会发生什么事。”

Much therefore rides on Mr Gou’s success. Prime Minister Narendra Modi has sunk plenty of political capital into a campaign called “make in India”, pledging to end the troubles over land and electricity that have bedevilled earlier manufacturing facilities. 

因此,情况在很大程度上取决于郭台铭能否成功。印度总理纳伦德拉?莫迪(Narendra Modi)已向一场名为“印度制造”的运动投入巨大的政治资本,承诺终结曾困扰之前工厂的土地和电力问题。

“The PM’s office has been hyperactive on this, they want big landmark projects,” says one government adviser.

“总理办公室在这方面特别积极,他们想要大型里程碑式项目,”一名政府顾问说。 

Foxconn’s $5bn plant in the western state of Maharashtra, the largest investment ever in a factory in India, is especially eye-catching. It suggests that the Taiwanese group, which is best known for making iPhones and iPads for Apple, could even go on to become India’s 
largest foreign investor, if plans for a dozen other new facilities bear fruit. 

富士康斥资50亿美元在印度西部的马哈拉施特拉邦(Maharashtra)建立工厂之事,尤为引人注目。这是在印度投资设厂金额最高的一次。这表明,这家靠为苹果(Apple)生产iPhone和iPad而闻名的台湾集团可能更进一步,成为印度市场最大的外国投资者,如果再建十几家工厂的计划实现的话。

“India is so big. Maybe in 10 years, we can have a factory in every state,” Mr Gou told Mint, a local business news-paper, yesterday. 

“印度这么大。或许在十年内,我们会在每个邦拥有一家工厂,”昨日郭台铭对印度商业报纸《铸币》(Mint)表示。

The history of similar grand greenfield projects is not a happy one, however. Analysts like Mr Maira point to the travails of South Korean steelmaker 
Posco, which began planning a giant $12bn facility a decade ago, only to see it mothballed following interminable land disputes with local tribal people. 
Numerous other Indian and global businesses have also come unstuck trying to build everything from aluminium refineries to power stations. Indeed having first entered India in 2006, Foxconn itself ran into difficulties. It was forced to shut a factory last year when Nokia, its client, ceased manufacturing after a row with the government over tax.

然而,类似大型绿地投资项目的历史并不愉快。迈拉等分析人士提到了韩国钢铁生产商浦项制铁(Posco)的痛苦经历。十年前,该公司开始计划斥资120亿美元建立一家巨型工厂,在与当地部落居民发生无止境的土地纠纷后,只能眼看着项目被暂停。在尝试建设从铝精炼厂到电厂的一系列工厂时,数不清的其他印度和跨国企业也都遭遇了失败。实际上,自2006年第一次进入印度以来,富士康也遇到了种种困难。去年,富士康的客户诺基亚(Nokia)在与印度政府发生税务纠纷后叫停生产订单,迫使富士康关闭了一家工厂。

Yesterday’s tie-up with Xiaomi, a fast-growing business often dubbed the “Apple of China”, shows that things may be improving, given smartphone makers have historically shown little enthusiasm over local factories.

考虑到智能手机生产商以往对在当地设厂不感兴趣,富士康昨日宣布的与小米的合作计划表明,情况或许开始好转。小米是一家飞速增长的企业,经常被称为“中国的苹果”。 

Plants making electronics goods such as smartphones require lots of land, adaptable workforces and good road and port infrastructure for exporting — all areas where India has struggled. As a result most Indian phones and televisions are imported, typically from China. 

生产智能手机等电子产品的工厂需要大量土地、可灵活调整的劳动力,以及用于出口的良好公路与港口基础设施——印度在这几个方面都存在欠缺。所以,印度大多数手机和电视机都是进口的,主要是从中国进口。  

Even companies that have begun to assemble locally, such as domestic smartphone maker Micromax, tend to ship components in from abroad. 

就连已开始本地组装的企业,比如国内智能手机生产商Micromax,都倾向于从境外运入产品部件。

The hope is that Foxconn’s decision to invest seriously will persuade others to follow, from semiconductor manufacturers and chipmakers to celebrated brands like Apple and Sony. “This is not just a flagship investment but an anchor investment, which could help a full electronic system design and manufacturing value chain to come up in India,” says Rajat Dhawan, a director at consultants McKinsey.

希望在于,富士康大举投资的决定将说服其他企业跟进,从半导体制造商和芯片制造商、到苹果和索尼(Sony)等知名品牌。“这不仅仅是一笔标志性投资,而且也是一笔锚定投资,可能会帮助推动整个电子系统设计与制造价值链落户印度,”咨询机构麦肯锡(McKinsey)的总监拉雅?达万(Rajat Dhawan)说。

Yet whether Mr Gou’s bold plans can deliver now depend on a range of awkward practical questions, beginning with land. 

不过,郭台铭的大胆计划能否实现,如今取决于一系列棘手的实际问题,首先就是土地问题。

In Maharashtra, the company has been given a 1,500-acre plot in a local industrial zone, along with help surmounting other bureaucratic hurdles. But other planned factories may not be so fortunate, relying instead on complex land laws, and the vagaries of uncooperative local officials to supply vital resources such as water and electricity.

在马哈拉施特拉邦,富士康在当地一处工业园内取得了一块1500英亩的土地,在克服其他官僚障碍方面也获得了帮助。但其他计划建设的工厂或许没那么幸运,而要依赖于复杂的土地法律、以及不愿合作的当地官员在提供水电等关键资源方面难以预料的举动。 

Workers are the other big problem. Mr Gou talks of hiring 50,000 in Maharashtra, and ultimately as many as 1m in India. Yet India’s labour laws remain highly restrictive, making hiring and firing employees difficult. Working with unions and finding suitably skilled managers will also be tough. 

工人是另一个大问题。郭台铭谈到要在马哈拉施特拉邦招聘5万名工人,最终在全印度招工人数将达到100万。不过,印度的劳工法律仍限制极严,招工和解聘都很困难。跟工会打交道以及物色技能娴熟的经理人,也将是个挑战。

“If this comes off it will be a great, great thing,” says Rajiv Kumar, an economist at the Centre for Policy Research in New Delhi. “But there are so many things which need to come together for something like Foxconn’s plans to happen. Will it work? The short answer is, I will believe it when I see it.”

“如果富士康能成功,那就太好了。”新德里政策研究中心(Centre for Policy Research)的经济学家拉吉夫?库马尔(Rajiv Kumar)说,“但是,富士康的远大计划要想实现,需要同时满足的条件是这么多。富士康的计划能行吗?简短回答是,眼见为实。” 

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