cocotang 于2015-08-13发布 l 已有人浏览
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Just days after unveiling plans to build a $5bn factory in western India, Taiwanese electronics maker Foxconn yesterday underlined the scale of its Indian ambitions by signing a tie-up to assemble smartphones for China’s Xiaomi at a second recently opened facility in the south of the country.


Foxconn’s plans have caught attention both for their scope and speed. Anxious Indian politicians worried for years that they might never be able to entice global companies to set up the type of huge, labour-intensive factory that Foxconn made famous, and which in turn helped to power China’s economic rise.


But now the company’s founder and chairman,Terry Gou, seems to be in a rush not only to open up new facilities, but to do so at a pace that is set to see India catch up with China and become Foxconn’s second major manufacturing base in Asia — assuming, of course, that his ambitions do not get caught up in the country’s treacherous bureaucracy.

但如今,富士康创始人、董事长郭台铭(Terry Gou)似乎不但急于在印度建立新工厂,而且急于以较快的速度建厂——按照这个速度,印度将赶上中国、成为富士康在亚洲的第二个主要生产基地。当然,前提是这一抱负不要被变幻莫测的印度官僚政治拖后腿。 

“We’ve had dramas before here when big investors come in, but then often they get stuck,” says Arun Maira, an author and former chairman of Boston Consulting Group in India. “It is great news they are coming with big plans, but other companies may not follow Foxconn in. They will wait and see how far they get.” 

“以前当大投资者进来时,也曾引起过轰动,但后来他们往往陷入困境。”作家、波士顿咨询集团(BCG)印度公司前董事长阿伦?迈拉(Arun Maira)说,“他们正带着宏伟计划来这里,这是个天大的好消息,但其他企业或许不会追随富士康而来。它们将等着瞧会发生什么事。”

Much therefore rides on Mr Gou’s success. Prime Minister Narendra Modi has sunk plenty of political capital into a campaign called “make in India”, pledging to end the troubles over land and electricity that have bedevilled earlier manufacturing facilities. 

因此,情况在很大程度上取决于郭台铭能否成功。印度总理纳伦德拉?莫迪(Narendra Modi)已向一场名为“印度制造”的运动投入巨大的政治资本,承诺终结曾困扰之前工厂的土地和电力问题。

“The PM’s office has been hyperactive on this, they want big landmark projects,” says one government adviser.


Foxconn’s $5bn plant in the western state of Maharashtra, the largest investment ever in a factory in India, is especially eye-catching. It suggests that the Taiwanese group, which is best known for making iPhones and iPads for Apple, could even go on to become India’s 
largest foreign investor, if plans for a dozen other new facilities bear fruit. 


“India is so big. Maybe in 10 years, we can have a factory in every state,” Mr Gou told Mint, a local business news-paper, yesterday. 


The history of similar grand greenfield projects is not a happy one, however. Analysts like Mr Maira point to the travails of South Korean steelmaker 
Posco, which began planning a giant $12bn facility a decade ago, only to see it mothballed following interminable land disputes with local tribal people. 
Numerous other Indian and global businesses have also come unstuck trying to build everything from aluminium refineries to power stations. Indeed having first entered India in 2006, Foxconn itself ran into difficulties. It was forced to shut a factory last year when Nokia, its client, ceased manufacturing after a row with the government over tax.


Yesterday’s tie-up with Xiaomi, a fast-growing business often dubbed the “Apple of China”, shows that things may be improving, given smartphone makers have historically shown little enthusiasm over local factories.


Plants making electronics goods such as smartphones require lots of land, adaptable workforces and good road and port infrastructure for exporting — all areas where India has struggled. As a result most Indian phones and televisions are imported, typically from China. 


Even companies that have begun to assemble locally, such as domestic smartphone maker Micromax, tend to ship components in from abroad. 


The hope is that Foxconn’s decision to invest seriously will persuade others to follow, from semiconductor manufacturers and chipmakers to celebrated brands like Apple and Sony. “This is not just a flagship investment but an anchor investment, which could help a full electronic system design and manufacturing value chain to come up in India,” says Rajat Dhawan, a director at consultants McKinsey.

希望在于,富士康大举投资的决定将说服其他企业跟进,从半导体制造商和芯片制造商、到苹果和索尼(Sony)等知名品牌。“这不仅仅是一笔标志性投资,而且也是一笔锚定投资,可能会帮助推动整个电子系统设计与制造价值链落户印度,”咨询机构麦肯锡(McKinsey)的总监拉雅?达万(Rajat Dhawan)说。

Yet whether Mr Gou’s bold plans can deliver now depend on a range of awkward practical questions, beginning with land. 


In Maharashtra, the company has been given a 1,500-acre plot in a local industrial zone, along with help surmounting other bureaucratic hurdles. But other planned factories may not be so fortunate, relying instead on complex land laws, and the vagaries of uncooperative local officials to supply vital resources such as water and electricity.


Workers are the other big problem. Mr Gou talks of hiring 50,000 in Maharashtra, and ultimately as many as 1m in India. Yet India’s labour laws remain highly restrictive, making hiring and firing employees difficult. Working with unions and finding suitably skilled managers will also be tough. 


“If this comes off it will be a great, great thing,” says Rajiv Kumar, an economist at the Centre for Policy Research in New Delhi. “But there are so many things which need to come together for something like Foxconn’s plans to happen. Will it work? The short answer is, I will believe it when I see it.”

“如果富士康能成功,那就太好了。”新德里政策研究中心(Centre for Policy Research)的经济学家拉吉夫?库马尔(Rajiv Kumar)说,“但是,富士康的远大计划要想实现,需要同时满足的条件是这么多。富士康的计划能行吗?简短回答是,眼见为实。” 

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